1.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The first portion of the passage focuses on Will’s reaction to news of Dorothea’s engagement, while the second portion shifts to Dorothea and Will’s conversation about art and Will’s own pursuits. Thus, answer (B) is correct. Though Will does think about Mr. Casaubon in the first portion of the passage, the second does not focus on his opinions of Dorothea, making (A) incorrect. Will does not admire Dorothea from afar (C), nor does the passage start with Will’s appreciation of art (D).

2.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In lines 1-24, Will processes the news of Dorothea’s engagement, filled with a “comic disgust” (line 10) and an “impulse to burst into scornful invective” (lines 11-12) as he struggles with how to react. His attitude is thus not that of a supportive friend (A) or amused confidant (D). Will also describes Dorothea as an “adorable young creature” (line 8) and shows some romantic interest in her, making it unlikely he is a relative (B). Together, the tone of the words “disgust” and “adorable” imply that Will still thinks of Dorothea favorably, although he is unhappy with her news. This best suggests that Will is a displeased admirer, making (C) correct.

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Lines 4-10 reference the portion of the passage where Will is described as being filled with comic disgust that Mr. Casaubon was first to persuade Dorothea of marriage, making (A) correct. Answer (B) only describes Will’s pained physical reaction, not his relationship to Dorothea. (C) focuses on Dorothea’s reaction and (D) moves to Will’s description of the first time he saw Dorothea, neither of which lend support to the idea that Will is a “displeased admirer” as established in the previous question.

4.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Dorothea is described as finding Will’s smile “irresistible” and mirroring it, even though she wondered at his reaction, so (A) is correct. Dorothea is not described as worried (B) but rather admires Will’s good humor (line 35); she also engages happily with Will’s comments on art for the latter part of the passage without being offended or dismissive, thus eliminating (C) and (D).

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 17-18 directly reference Dorothea’s wonder and returning smile, so (B) is correct. Answer (A) discusses Will, not Dorothea, while answers (C) and (D) reference two of Dorothea’s comments that focus on art, not Will’s reaction to her news.

6.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Dorothea states in lines 34-41 that she feels somewhat ignorant about art because she “never could see any beauty in the pictures which my uncle told me all judges thought very fine” (lines 36-38). Her opinions were thus not based on years of study (A), nor does she claim or project any superiority (C). Lines 34-41 do imply that, contrary to the views of “judges” of art, Dorothea’s opinions come from her plain, unschooled feelings about them, making (B) correct. This directly contradicts the idea that Dorothea’s opinions are refined and artificial (D).

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Here, Will is using the word “annihilated” to describe Dorothea’s initial criticism of his work. (D) is closest in meaning to this, as “disparaged” means to express a low opinion of something. It does not make sense to say that Dorothea “eliminated” (A) or “erased” (B) Will’s painting, as these are more literal meanings of “annihilated,” whereas Will is using the term more figuratively; thus, these answers are incorrect. “Converted” is not a common synonym of “annihilated” (C) and also fails to capture the figurative meaning in the original sentence, and is thus incorrect.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In lines 38-41, Dorothea is talking about the judges of art who called certain works very fine, works that Dorothea “never could see any beauty in” (line 36). She compares this to being blind while people talk of the sky to indicate that “It is painful” (lines 38-39) not being able to see that which others value in certain pieces of art. Answer (B) best captures this meaning. Dorothea has no issues with her actual sight (A), nor does the metaphor suggest that she is indifferent to others’ perspectives (C). While it could be true that Dorothea is hopeful of one day understanding others’ perspectives (D), that is not why she makes the comparison, as it focuses only on what she feels she currently cannot understand.

9.

The Correct Answer is (A) — When used as an adjective, “affected” means contrived, or put on deliberately. Here, Will is talking about the various styles of art that are artificial and sometimes forced, making (A) the best choice. He is not calling these styles deceitful (B), fake (C), or insincere (D), all of which are too strong to work in the original context of the sentence; Will is suggesting that these styles are pretentious, not that they are looking to fool anyone.

10.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The question asks what Will is most directly referring to. Since Will is discussing his desire not to pursue a career as a painter in this paragraph, (B) is correct. Though he may feel similarly about Dorothea’s hand in marriage (A), he is not directly referencing this when he is speaking to Dorothea. (C) and (D) are incorrect as there is no mention in this paragraph of a trip to Frankfurt (C) nor of any work in art criticism (D).

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Chisolm clearly has strong feelings about her subject (gender equality), and she is arguing for, or advocating, a particular action (passing the Equal Rights Amendment); “passionate advocate” is a good description of someone in this position, so (B) is correct. Chisolm’s tone is too positive and forward-thinking to suggest weariness, and the solution she is advocating involves modifying the existing system, not starting over in a radical new direction, so (A) is incorrect. Chisolm is optimistic, but her tone is too sober to be labeled “excited,” and although she was a politician, she is not drawing on her experiences in the political world in this speech; thus, (C) is incorrect. Chisolm is optimistic about the benefits the amendment can bring, but she is not speaking as a scholar, so (D) is incorrect.

12.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Chisolm explicitly connects “legal discrimination between the sexes” to “outmoded views of society” and “pre-scientific beliefs” (lines 71-73); “outdated” sums up her view of those sets of beliefs, so (C) is correct. Chisolm does not at any point acknowledge any important differences between the sexes that must be protected, so (A) is incorrect. By saying legal distinctions between the sexes reflect “outmoded views of society,” Chisolm is saying they are generally not valid, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm calls discrimination against women the “most pervasive” form of prejudice (lines 5-10), so it is reasonable to infer that she considers the effects of legal distinctions between the sexes to be more than minimal; she certainly never says anything that suggests the effects of legal distinctions between the sexes are minor, so (D) is incorrect.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) explicitly lays out Chisolm’s view that legal distinctions between the sexes result from outdated thinking; it aligns with both the topic and the correct answer of the previous question, so it is correct. (A) describes the extent of the problem of discrimination against women, but it does not connect that problem to outdated thinking or even to its legal permissibility under the current laws, so it is incorrect. (B) conveys the urgency of her cause, but it does not offer her opinion about the causes of the problem, so it is incorrect. (C) is a rhetorical question that invites the audience to consider a world without legal distinctions between the sexes, but it does not connect those distinctions to the outdated thinking from which they arose, so it is incorrect.

14.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Chisolm clearly condemns discrimination against women (as in, for example, lines 14-18), and she also states that it “is so widespread that it seems to many persons normal, natural, and right” (lines 9-10); “accepted but unjust” captures both of these elements, so (B) is correct. Chisolm is arguing for a method to stop discrimination against women, so although she clearly thinks it is unfortunate, she does not view it as unavoidable; thus, (A) is incorrect. Chisolm is arguing for an end to discrimination against women, so she clearly does not consider it necessary; thus, (C) is incorrect. Chisolm is arguing for a change in the laws of the country, which is necessary because current laws do permit discrimination against women; thus, she does not consider discrimination against women illegal, so (D) is incorrect even though she does consider it common.

15.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “expression” with “assertion” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and retains essentially the same meaning, about the extent to which legally demonstrating or “asserting” prejudice on religious or political grounds has been allowed; thus, (A) is correct. Chisolm is referring to the very existence of legal manifestations of prejudice, not to the degree of their strength, as would be connoted by “intensity,” so (B) is incorrect. “Announcement” is typically used to refer to the proclamation of something new, or to a formal statement. The legal expression of prejudice described was generally neither a proclamation nor a statement but rather a regular occurrence; thus “announcement” does not make sense in this context, so (C) is incorrect. Chisolm was referring explicitly to actions, which exist externally; emotions are internal and cannot be regulated by law, so “emotion” does not make sense in the original context and (D) is incorrect.

16.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Chisolm recognizes the argument that legal methods will not end discrimination against women in the same paragraph where she says that it is “not relevant” and “no reason” to avoid changing the laws (lines 19-27); thus, (A) is correct. Chisolm’s brief discussion of the Armed Forces (lines 38-42) does not address the question of their changing demographics, and is included as an example rather than a response to another argument, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm does not compare the United States to any other countries, so (C) is incorrect. Chisolm does not mention any benefits women currently receive under the law, so (D) is incorrect.

17.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) summarizes most directly Chisolm’s acknowledgement that laws alone do not end prejudice; it aligns with both the content and the topic of the previous answer, so it is correct. (A) refers to the problem of legal allowances for discrimination, but it does not address the argument that legal changes cannot end discrimination, so it is incorrect. (C) discusses the potential legal ramifications of the amendment, but not in a context that addresses whether or not they would end discrimination against women, so it is incorrect. (D) discusses the potential economic ramifications of the amendment, which does not align with the correct answer to the previous question since that answer related to legal remedies; thus, (D) is incorrect.

18.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “fitted” with “suited” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and is close in meaning to the original sentence; specifically, “suited” can carry the meaning of being well-matched with a particular role which is conveyed in the original sentence. Thus, (D) is correct. “Contoured” and “shaped” suggest being physically compatible with something rather than meaning well-matched with a particular role, so (A) and (B) are incorrect. “Fixed” implies changing something rather than discussing whether it is already a good match, so (C) is incorrect.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The direct effects Chisolm mentions are all minor, while the indirect effects are considerably more significant; this suggests a future in which no major upheavals occur but later generations reap great rewards, best summarized by (C). The indirect effects Chisolm mentions are significant, not small, so (A) is incorrect. Chisolm does not state that anything people currently fear may occur, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm does not divide the effects of the amendment by which aspects of people’s lives they affect, so (D) is incorrect.

20.

The Correct Answer is (B) — “Relics of the past” refers directly to the “artificial distinctions between persons” that “must be wiped out of the law” that Chisolm mentions earlier in the paragraph (lines 69-71); (B) accurately summarizes this, so it is correct. Chisolm does criticize the Constitution in its current form, but she does not question the importance of the Constitution in arbitrating issues of justice, so (A) is incorrect. “Assumptions about women’s natural inclinations for homemaking” may be among the “outmoded views” she criticizes, but she is arguing for an amendment that would “sweep away” legal distinctions, not the outmoded views that led to these laws, so (C) is incorrect. Chisolm does not criticize the process for altering laws, so (D) is incorrect.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Although the introductory paragraph is fairly general, line 20 onwards focuses specifically on research into the potential effects of music on people with health conditions, so (C) is correct. Its physiological effects on facial musculature and its ability to improve productivity in office settings are both aspects of music touched on only very briefly in the first paragraph, not developed at length, so (A) and (B) are both incorrect. While the passage does discuss Parkinson’s disease, it addresses the impact music has on patients’ movement rather than their mood, so (D) is incorrect.

22.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Lines 1-19 provide “an overview of diverse results” related to the effects of music on people, and after a transition in the second paragraph, lines 34 through the end of the passage discuss a “particular avenue of research” into the effects of music specifically on patients with Parkinson’s; thus, (A) is correct. The passage does not include anecdotes or an overarching scientific theory, so (B) is incorrect. The passage does quote researchers, but there is no interview with anyone identified as a doctor, nor are there any descriptions of particular patients, so (C) is incorrect. The passage does not explain any basic principles, which would be general in nature, but rather describes specific results from studies with a focus on one research area in particular; thus, (D) is incorrect.

23.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “positive” with “favorable” in the original sentence creates a sentence that makes sense, since attitudes can be described as “favorable,” and carries a meaning close to that of the original sentence; thus, (A) is correct. “Definite” and “unequivocal” have meanings closely related to ideas of certainty, which does not make sense in the original sentence, which is focused on benefits provided by music. It would also be unusual to describe attitudes as being certain without clarifying what it was the office workers were certain of, so (B) and (C) are incorrect. “Beneficial” is not typically used to describe an attitude; it may be used to describe the attitude’s usefulness for some other purpose, but generally not as a characteristic of the attitude itself, so (D) is incorrect.

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The studies in the first paragraph are all examples of effects music can have on the body; lines 34 to the end of the passage look specifically at the effects music can have on the body in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Thus, (B) is correct. The studies point to intriguing new results, not a prevailing scientific consensus, so (A) is incorrect. The studies in the first paragraph do not relate to Parkinson’s treatment, nor does the rest of the passage advocate for a specific treatment for the illness, so (C) is incorrect. The passage never discusses questions of securing funding for scientific research, so (D) is incorrect.

25.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “condition” with “illness” in the original sentence creates a sentence that makes sense and retains its original meaning. In the original context, the phrase “one such condition” is setting up Parkinson’s disease as an example of the “particular disorders” (line 32) people are researching; “condition” specifically refers to medical problems, which include illnesses. Thus, (A) is correct. “Situation,” “environment,” and “requirement” are all words that do not have medical connotations in common use, so (B), (C), and (D) are incorrect.

26.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage spends lines 56-64 explaining why research into Parkinson’s and music looks promising, but notes that “there are a lot of variables that haven’t been studied yet” (lines 67-68), suggesting the evidence so far is inconclusive; thus, (D) is correct. The passage does not claim that music therapy has yet had significant benefits for Parkinson’s patients; rather, it suggests that research in this area is still somewhat new, so (A) is incorrect. The passage does imply that research on music’s effects on the brain is in its early stages and therefore not yet conclusive; however, it quotes Robert Zatorre saying that music is like “anything else” in that knowing an effect it has on the brain does not mean being able to see a clear link to its ability to impact mental health. This suggests that the connection between music and the brain is not unusually convoluted for the field of psychology, which in turn suggests that there is nothing particular to this research that makes it confusing or difficult to study, so (B) is incorrect. The passage does not include the perspective of anyone who is scornful of researching the effects of music on the brain, so (C) is incorrect.

27.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The lines in (A) capture the fact that current scientific understanding is not sufficient to support strong conclusions about music’s effects on mental or physical health; this relates to the correct answer to the previous question, so it is correct. (B) describes some potential explanations for particular studies; this does not support the idea that it is too early to make strong claims for the effects of music, so it is incorrect. (C) describes observations made by researchers; this also does not support the idea that it is too early to make strong claims for the effects of music, so it is incorrect. (D) does point to some reasons the research is far from conclusive so far, but it does not itself relate to the idea that it is too early to make strong claims for the effects of music, so it is incorrect.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Grahn points to the fact that “patients really vary” as something that makes research difficult to draw strong conclusions from; the passage says that she would find more data “a major boon” (lines 70-71) in a context that suggests this would address the “variables that haven’t been studied yet” (67-68), which include variation among individual patients. Thus, (C) is correct. The passage does not at all mention the opinions of “scientific authorities” or any scientists regarding Gran’s work, so (A) is incorrect. The passage does not discuss different types of treatments with which Grahn might want to experiment, so (B) is incorrect. The passage does not discuss aspects of her work such as getting funding for her research, so (D) is incorrect.

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) highlights the fact that testing for a multitude of variables is a goal for Grahn; it also highlights that that goalcould be addressed with more data to give insight into individuals with differing characteristics, such as different degrees of musical ability; thus, it is correct. (A) introduces Grahn but does not suggest that she would like more data, so it is incorrect. (B) and (C) both describe trends Grahn has observed in her research thus far, not issues she would like to resolve with more data, so they are incorrect.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graph shows higher velocity, or speed, for patients when they listened to music while walking than when they did not, so (B) is correct. As explained in the caption below the graphic, the graph depicts results for a single group of patients in different circumstances, not two different groups of patients, so (A) and (C), which both contain comparisons to other groups of patients, are incorrect. Patients walked faster, not slower, with music than without, so (D) is incorrect.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) specifically refers to improvements in walking for Parkinson’s patients who listened to music, which is what the graph is about, so it is correct. (A) discusses a study on non-Parkinson’s patients relating to facial movements, so it is incorrect. (B) refers to general brain responses to music, not to the effects of music on walking in Parkinson’s patients, so it is incorrect. (D) is a general statement about the variety among patients with Parkinson’s disease; it does not refer to any music-related interventions, so it is incorrect.

32.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage conveys an interest in recent stress-related research; thus, (B) is correct. The author of the passage quotes others with expertise in the topic of stress, but she does not present herself as any kind of expert, so (A) is incorrect. The passage does not make any arguments related to the stressfulness of graduate school admissions, so (C) is incorrect. The passage talks about the potential benefits of stress, not ways to lower stress levels, so (D) is incorrect.

33.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “embrace” with “accept” in the original context creates a sentence that makes sense and closely retains the original meaning; the original sentence is in fact about encouraging students to think positively about, rather than try to fight, their stress. Thus, (C) is correct. Although it is possible to speak idiomatically of “holding” stress, the use of “hold” in that phrase means something close to “have,” which does not make sense in the original context since students already have the stress they are being encouraged to embrace; thus, (A) is incorrect. It could make sense to speak of “adopting” stress, but in the original sentence students are being told to accept stress they already have, and “adopt” would carry a connotation of introducing something new into their lives; thus, (C) is incorrect. “Comprise” means “to be made up of”; students are not being asked to be made up of their stress, which would not make sense, so (D) is incorrect.

34.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Lines 1-6 show that Prof. Brooks found that people thought trying to calm down was the best way to handle a stressful situation; lines 7-14 describe the experiment she used to test this, and lines 15-25 discuss her results, which showed that their assumption was not accurate. (A) captures these elements, and it also accurately describes Prof. Brooks as a researcher, so it is correct. The lines do not mention any particular students with concerns over their GPA, so (B) is incorrect. No experts on stress are quoted in lines 1-25, so (C) is incorrect. No one mentioned in lines 1-25 is a public speaking coach, so (D) is incorrect.

35.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 15-22 report that participants told to embrace their anxiety “were more confident in their ability to give a good talk,” and that “observers” found them “more persuasive, confident, and competent” than other participants; thus, (B) is correct. The speakers did not rate themselves in the same way audience members did, and the speakers told to embrace their anxiety performed better according to audience ratings than those who did not, so (A) is incorrect. Although speakers told to embrace their anxiety did remain nervous and according to ratings did impress audiences, nothing in the passage suggests that what impressed them was specifically related to the speakers appearing calm, so (C) is incorrect. The passage suggests that the results were consistent enough to provide evidence, so (D) is incorrect.

36.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) contains the information about those told to embrace their stress being rated as more confident by audience members; it also refers, in “Not only that,” to the previously mentioned information about those participants feeling more confident about their abilities. It provides direct support for the correct answer to the previous question, so it is correct. (A) refers to the assumptions people made about stress in a different portion of Prof. Brooks’s research than the one referenced in the previous question, so it is incorrect. (B) sums up Prof. Brooks’s goals in the research described in the previous question, but the question was discussing her results, not her goals; thus, (B) is incorrect. (C) includes information about the methods she used in her study, but the previous question was about the results of her study, not her methods, so (C) is incorrect.

37.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “conventional” with “standard” in the original sentence makes sense and results in a sentence that closely retains its original meaning; thus, (C) is correct. One can speak of an “orthodox view,” but that would typically imply beliefs held by practitioners of a specific discipline or belief system, while the original context is referring to the conventional view on stress among the general population; thus, (A) is incorrect. In the phrase “plain view,” “plain” would conventionally be used to mean something like “simple” or “unadorned,” which is not similar to the use of “conventional” in the original sentence to suggest that a view is “widely held,” so (B) is incorrect. “Customary” conventionally refers to actions, such as social practices, and it implies that something has been established by custom, not by the absorption of information, so (D) is incorrect.

38.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage concludes by stating that the promise Prof. Jamieson sees in mind-set interventions is not just in the immediate effect but in the fact that they “stick” for a relatively long time (lines 79-82); thus, (C) is correct. Although encouraging students to embrace their anxiety did raise scores on a practice test, Prof. Jamieson finds mind-set interventions promising, and is therefore impressed with them, specifically because they had an effect after several days, not just in the immediate term, so (A) is incorrect. Prof. Jamieson did not find that encouraging students to embrace their anxiety decreased their anxiety, as discussed in lines 61-69, so (B) is incorrect. Prof. Jamieson found what he considers to be consistent results among his sample, not a wide variety of effects, so (D) is incorrect.

39.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) both directly mentions the long-lasting effects that impress Prof. Jamieson and contains phrasing that makes it clear that these effects are in fact what impress Prof. Jamieson most; thus, it is correct. (A) is a factual summary of his research; it does not talk about the results or his perceptions of the results, so it is incorrect. (B) is a quote from the pep talk Prof. Jamieson gave to participants; it does not talk about the results of his study or his perceptions of those results, so it is incorrect. (C) does mention one aspect of the results of Prof. Jamieson’s study, but it does not discuss his perception of those results, so it is incorrect.

40.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The graph compares practice GRE results between students who received the pep talk—that is, who were told to think of their anxiety positively—and those who did not; those who received it show higher scores, so (C) is correct. The graph does not contain information about how stressed students actually were, so (A) and (B) are incorrect. Students who were told to think of their anxiety positively did better, not worse, than students who were not, so (D) is incorrect.

41.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graph shows that students who received the pep talk, which the passage clarifies means that they were told to embrace their anxiety, got higher average scores on the practice GRE math section than those who did not receive the pep talk; the graph does not show a similar difference between the groups in the practice GRE verbal section. Thus, (B) is correct. Neither the passage nor the graph contains information about how much students studied, so (A) is incorrect. The graph does not contain information about physiological stress responses; moreover, the averages presented do not reveal anything about top scorers. Thus, (C) is incorrect. (D) is too strong a generalization to be supported by the two studies of stress in very specific circumstances mentioned in the passage, so it is incorrect.

42.

The Correct Answer is (B) — After making the reference to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the author of Passage 1 contrasts it with Wikipedia, which is the result of modern technology and can have mistakes edited much faster. Thus, (B) is correct. The author does not discuss about how reliable particular sources are, so (A) is incorrect. The author does not talk at length about the difference between digital and analog tools, so (C) is incorrect. The author does not imply that the Encyclopedia Britannica misrepresented or even discussed genome editing, so (D) is incorrect.

43.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Passage 1 states that that “the breakthrough” in genomic editing “really revolves around better and cheaper tools,” meaning technological improvements; thus, (C) is correct. The author explicitly states that this breakthrough does not come from “new ideas or concepts” (lines 33-34) so (A) is incorrect. Passage 1 does not mention changes in the political landscape or shifting environmental concerns at all, so (B) and (D) are incorrect.

44.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) explicitly connects the improvements in relevant technologies referred to in the previous answer to the “breakthrough” in genome editing. It is reasonable to infer from the context that this specifically means the breakthrough is in its feasibility; therefore, it is correct. (A) refers to the sudden feasibility of genome editing, but it does not say anything about its causes, so it is incorrect. (B) describes a particular feature of improvements in genome editing, but it does not connect that feature to the sudden feasibility of genome editing, so it is incorrect. (D) talks about some remaining potential pitfalls of genome editing, not reasons for its sudden feasibility, so it is incorrect.

45.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “therapeutic” with “curative” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and closely retains the original meaning; importantly, “curative” is a word that is used in medical contexts, which is how “therapeutic” is being used in the original sentence. Thus, (A) is correct. Although tools could potentially be remedial, “remedial” is generally not used in a medical context, so (B) is incorrect. “Positive” can be used in certain medical contexts, but it would be very vague and unconventional to speak of “positive tools” in a medical context, so (C) is incorrect. “Tonic” does have medical connotations, but its meaning as an adjective implies a sense of invigoration, which is too specific an experience to work in the original context, so (D) is incorrect.

46.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The authors of Passage 2 express concern about the potential harm caused by genome editing (lines 73-74), but they also state that there would be “underlying ethical concerns” even if genome editing turns out to be safe (lines 80-83); thus, (C) is correct. The authors of Passage 2 explicitly say this would be worth being concerned about even if genome editing were safe, so (A) is incorrect. They do not talk about the possibility that it will remain too expensive to be practical at large, and practicality is not their major concern, so (B) is incorrect. They do not at any point criticize genome editing for being too abnormal, so (D) is incorrect.

47.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) clarifies that the ethical implications with which the authors of Passage 2 are concerned will remain even if genome editing could be proven to be safe; it aligns with the content and provides support for the correct answer to the previous question, so it is correct. (A) talks about potential benefits of genome editing, not potential ethical concerns, so it is incorrect. (B) does talk about potential concerns related to genome editing, but they are concerns about its safety, not about the ethical matters referenced in the correct answer to the previous question, so it is incorrect. (C) reflects on the current status of research on genome editing in humans; it is not strongly connected to the previous question or its correct answer, so it is incorrect.

48.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) describes a situation in which an error in the original copy of something results in errors being passed on to copies made from the original; this is analogous to children (the copies) inheriting the gene mutation from the parent (the original), so it is correct. (A) describes something happening to things that already exist, but the replication-related problem in the passage stems from things coming into existence with an error, so it is incorrect. (B) describes the spread of an inherently harmful thing; the email virus was not the result of an error in something otherwise benign. Thus, (B) is incorrect. (D) describes potential harm stemming from a single source; this lacks the replication-related problems of the original situation, and is also only potential harm as opposed to the certain harm of the original situation, so it is incorrect.

49.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “pose” with “raise” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and closely retains the original meaning; importantly, to “pose” concerns and to “raise” concerns are both conventionally used idioms that mean to express concerns for the first time. “Arrange,” “model,” and “position” have no conventional idiomatic uses with equivalent meanings, so (B), (C), and (D) are incorrect.

50.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Passage 1 outlines both the conditions that have led to the breakthrough in genome editing and the potential benefits that breakthrough could bring, while Passage 2 highlights the potential ethical problems genome editing could present; those ethical problems are additional concerns which Passage 1 does not discuss. (B) accurately captures this relationship, so it is correct. Passage 1 does not talk about the political implications of genome editing, so (A) is incorrect. The author of Passage 1 does not mention that he is conducting research, nor are the authors of Passage 2 arguing against any kind of research, so (C) is incorrect. Neither passage argues in favor, passionately or cautiously, of any specific set of reforms, so (D) is incorrect.

51.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Passage 2 talks about the potential for genome editing to exacerbate existing inequalities between groups of people in lines 86-91; Passage 1 does not discuss any potential socioeconomic ramifications of genome editing. Thus, (A) is correct. Neither passage mentions potential health risks related to consuming genetically modified crops, so (B) is incorrect. Neither passage suggests that genome editing will be too expensive to ever be feasible in humans, so (C) is incorrect. The fact that even correctly executed modifications could have unforeseen effects is discussed in Passage 1 (lines 39-42), not Passage 2, so (D) is incorrect.

52.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) most directly expresses the strong optimism about genome editing conveyed by the author of Passage 1; thus, it is correct. (A) is background information about the human genome; it does not discuss the author’s view of genome editing, so it is incorrect. (B) sets up the discussion of the breakthrough in genome editing, but it does not contain information about the author’s view on it, so it is incorrect. (C) explains part of the reason for the potential importance of genome editing, but it does not contain information about the author’s view on it, so it is incorrect.