1.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to identify who the speaker is addressing in the poem I is false because the speaker never addresses Juliana; he only mentions her in the third person (line 14). II is true because the speaker addresses the glow-worms at the beginning of each stanza. III is false because the speaker never addresses himself. Therefore, (B) is correct and the other answers are incorrect.

2.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret the cumulative effect of word choices. (B) is correct because the phrases “wand’ring” and “lost their aim” modify the “mowers” in stanza three. The phrase indicates that they have become lost in the dark, and the “officious” (or “dutiful”) glow-worms help them find their way. (A) and (C) are incorrect because these phrases characterize the mowers, not the glow-worms. (D) is incorrect because these phrases do not scorn those who follow the glow-worms, they simply explain why then need to be shown their way. (E) is incorrect. These phrases are not using irony to show that the mowers are hardworking; they’re just lost.

3.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (D) is correct because “matchless” most nearly means “unparalleled” or exceptional or having no equal in the line: “her matchless songs does meditate” (line 4). (A) and (E) are tempting because an animal without a “match” or mate might be “lonely” or “solitary.” However, “matchless” means that something has no equal, not that it has no companions. (B) is incorrect because “matchless” specifically refers to something that has no equal in skill, while “distinguished” merely describes something that is successful. (C) is incorrect because something “unique” is different from other things, while something “matchless” is more specifically better than other things.

4.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to analyze how the structure of the poem shapes its meaning. (E) is correct because a “prince’s funeral” is a serious event that commands the attention of a whole country, while the “grass’s fall” is something ordinary that no one pays attention to. Comets were once believed to announce important events, such as the death of royalty; the glow-worms, which look like tiny comets, only announce the death of grass. (A) is tempting because “Ye” looks a little like “Yea,” which is an old form of “yes.” However, “Ye” is an old form of “you,” so it doesn’t contrast with “No” in any meaningful way. (B) is incorrect because “country” modifies “comets” in line 5, meaning comets you see in the country. No contrast is created with this phrase. (C) is incorrect because “portend” and “presage” both mean “to announce that something is coming.” (D) is incorrect because “war” is an example of a “higher end,” not something that contrasts with it. These are both on the “lofty” side of the “lofty/common” contrast between comets and glow-worms.

5.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze the perspective and attitude of the speaker of the poem. (A) is correct because “fond” means affectionate and wistful means a feeling of regretful longing. The speaker affectionately addresses the glow-worms through positive metaphors: “ye living lamps,” “ye country comets,” and “your courteous lights.” You can see the speaker’s regret and longing when he says, “your courteous lights in vain you waste.” The speaker regretfully believes the glow-worms are wasting their lights as his lovesickness for Juliana is so overwhelming he is unable to follow the lights of the glow-worms home. (B) is incorrect. The speaker is attitude towards the glow-worms is not “awestruck” or astonished, nor is his attitude “humbled” or lowered in dignity or importance. (C) is incorrect because the speaker feels “melancholy” and “lovesick” because of his love for Juliana, not the glow-worms. (D) is incorrect because the speaker’s attitude towards the glow-worms is not “fascinated” or enthralled. There is no evidence that the speaker is “thrilled” or excited about the glow-worms. These words exaggerate the affection and interest the speaker has towards the glow-worms. (E) is incorrect. The speaker’s attitude towards the glow-worms is not “officious and formal.” Officious means self-important and annoyingly domineering and formal means prim and stiff in manner. The speaker is affectionate when addressing the glow-worms, and his words carry a tone of wistfulness.

6.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify the specific, named literary device that is NOT used in the passage. (E) is correct because there is no paradox in lines 9-12. A paradox is defined as a statement that appears to be self-contradictory but includes a latent truth. (A) is incorrect because alliteration describes two or more words near each other that share the same initial sound, such as “foolish fires” (line 12). (B) is incorrect because rhyme describes two or more words that end with the same sound, such as “flame” and “aim” (lines 9 and 11) and “way” and “stray” (lines 10 and 12). (C) is incorrect because assonance describes two or more words near each other that share a vowel sound, such as “glow,” “officious,” “mowers,” and “show” (lines 9-12). (D) is incorrect because a metaphor compares two things by saying that one is the other; calling the light of the glow-worms a “flame” (line 9) is a metaphor because the glow-worms are not literally on fire.

7.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (B) is correct because the speaker tells the glow-worms they “waste” their light because, since Juliana “my mind hath so displac’d.” “That I shall never find my home.” (A) is incorrect because the glow-worms’ light is never said to try to cheer the speaker up, only help him find his way home. (C) and (E) are incorrect because neither the speaker nor Juliana are said to be led towards each other. (D) is incorrect because the speaker never mentions a need to focus on any single activity, or that his mowing work is suffering because of a lack of focus.

8.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (A) is correct because the “eyes” are “the eyes of the latter.” “Latter” means the second of two things (or part of the second half of a set of things). We just need to go back to the beginning of the sentence to find the relevant pair: “Mr. Snodgrass and Mr. Winkle” are the subjects of this sentence. Since Mr. Winkle is mentioned second he is “the latter,” and “the eyes of the latter” must be Mr. Winkle’s. (B) is incorrect because Mr. Snodgrass is mentioned first in the pair. That would make him the “former,” not the “latter.” (C) is incorrect because Mr. Pickwick isn’t mentioned at all in this paragraph or before the relevant phrase. While it’s possible for a referent to be far away from a reference, or to come after it, the correct referent won’t usually be further away than other objects that could be interpreted as the correct referent. (D) is incorrect because the narrator doesn’t mention himself at all, and if something isn’t part of a list, pair, or series, then it can’t be described as “the latter.” (E) is incorrect because, while the “hat” is the latter object in the phrase “his venerated leader ... running after his own hat,” the “eyes” beyond to someone looking at that pair—not something in the pair being looked at.

9.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (B) is correct because this phrase shows us a character “staunching,” or stopping, a “stream of life” coming from his nose. Blood is very closely associated with life, just as the loss of blood is associated with the loss of life. It has also often been considered rude or lurid to mention blood directly, so it’s plausible to interpret “stream of life” as a euphemism for “stream of blood.” We can also look a little further back and see that both characters had “performed a compulsory somerset.” “Somerset” is just another way of saying “somersault,” a kind of tumbling, but “compulsory” suggests they didn’t want or mean to do it—so, that could be a way of saying they were knocked over, which would explain a nosebleed. Thus, we can reasonably interpret this to mean that a character is stopping his nosebleed, and we can even guess why his nose might be bleeding. (A) is incorrect because, while a person’s nose may run while crying profusely, there’s no other suggestion that either person is crying. (C) is incorrect because the line indicates that the “staunching” (or, the stopping) is being accomplished by holding “a yellow silk handkerchief” against someone’s nose. Covering your nose would do nothing to block out sunlight, and this answer claims that a hand is being used to create this blockage, not a handkerchief. (D) is incorrect because the main verb of this line, “staunching,” means to stop or restrict access to, which has nothing to do with looking for something. (E) is incorrect because, while we do sometimes use handkerchiefs to stifle sneezes, the context does not suggest that Mr. Winkle is sneezing. For one thing, Mr. Winkle sees “his leader” chasing his hat while Mr. Winkle is “staunching” the stream from his nose. A sneeze is a short, abrupt event, and we don’t normally sneeze with our eyes open—so it would be odd for Mr. Winkle to be able to observe such a thing while stifling a sneeze.

10.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (A) is correct because Mr. Pickwick’s hat “roll[s] sportively” in front of him in the wind; he chases after to recover it. This means that, just as the wind puffs at the hat, Mr. Pickwick puffs while he runs. (B) is incorrect because it implies that Mr. Pickwick puffs in imitation of the wind, as though the wind’s puffing reminded him to do the same. However, he puffs because he’s running, not because the wind gave him the idea. (C) is incorrect because it suggests that the wind was caused by Mr. Pickwick’s puffing, which we know isn’t true; the wind has already been described as active before Mr. Pickwick is described as puffing. (D) is incorrect because the statement doesn’t give any insight into Mr. Pickwick’s internal state. (E) is incorrect because we never learn about Mr. Pickwick’s exercise preferences.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a phrase in the passage. (C) is correct because the “it” in this sentence is Mr. Pickwick’s hat, which he has been chasing, and which has just been tossed by a gust of wind. Mr. Pickwick was then about to “[resign] it,” or give it up, “to its fate” when it was stopped. Since he’s been chasing his hat, and it was about to get away from him, its “fate” is best understood as its loss. (B) is incorrect because “its” refers to the hat; while bystanders might make fun of the man chasing the hat, there’s no reason to believe they would ridicule the hat. (A) is incorrect because the hat is only being lost, not destroyed. Someone else could find it later. (D) is incorrect because Mr. Pickwick might become exhausted from running too fast, but that’s his fate—not his hat’s. (E) is not correct because “its fate” refers to the hat being blown away by the wind, which is not a phenomenon specific to cities.

12.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (D) is correct because “merrily” suggests brisk, unrestrained action; and just as a “lively porpoise” in a “strong tide” would be moving in a rapid, unconstrained fashion, we can infer that the hat—having been taken up by a strong breeze—is tumbling rapidly. (A) is incorrect because, while the hat might move quickly if it wanted to escape, “yearning” doesn’t match the tone of “merrily.” (B) is incorrect because it is the blowing wind that is giving the hat this autonomy, not its faulty design, which is never mentioned or alluded to. (C) is incorrect because the hat’s being compared to a porpoise’s in this simile. This suggests that an object is mimicking animal behavior, not that an animal is mimicking human behavior. (E) is incorrect because not being able to catch something does not necessarily mean someone is physically weak, and the hat is being compared to one wild animal only in the way it moves through the wind, which doesn’t necessarily correlate to strength against which Mr. Pickwick could be weak.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to analyze how different parts of the passage relate to one another. (D) is correct because the first and third paragraphs describe the specific actions of particular characters in a narrative, while the second paragraph deals more abstractly with the hypothetical possibility of a man losing his hat and describes the general principles of conduct appropriate to that generic situation. (A) is incorrect for two reasons. One reason is that “the problem” that Mr. Pickwick faces, of having to chase his hat, is ongoing rather than “earlier.” The other reason is that the third paragraph also discusses a solution when it mentioned that the hat was “providentially stopped.” (B) is incorrect because the first and third paragraphs both make clear use of metaphor and simile, while the second paragraph mainly uses fairly straightforward, literal language. (C) is incorrect because, while the generic “man” of the second paragraph ought to try to appear to be jovial, Mr. Snodgrass and Mr. Winkle are not mentioned at all. (E) is incorrect because the second paragraph doesn’t express any antipathy towards the characters’ plight; “ludicrous distress” may seem to be a slight against the generic man of the paragraph, but in context, “experiences so much ludicrous distress, or meets with so little charitable commiseration,” is best interpreted as meaning something like “becomes so ridiculously upset, or gets so little sympathy.” While that suggests that the man’s situation might be funnier to us than it is to him, it also suggests that he might deserve more sympathy than he gets.

14.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage in terms of its tone. (A) is correct because the author informs us that “a vast deal of coolness and a peculiar degree of judgment” are required to properly chase one’s hat, from which we can infer that the task is tricky. We are also told that a man chasing his own hat gets “little charitable commiseration” and that he must behave as though he “thought it as good a joke as anybody else.” In other words, rather than sympathizing with his situation, other people tend to think it’s funny—and while a man may be very upset about possibly losing his hat, he must pretend that it’s funny as well. That kind of self-consciousness about one’s feelings suggests a degree of embarrassment. (B) is incorrect because the situation described is not the day-to-day task of finding one’s hat at home, but the more unusual circumstance of losing it outside. (C) is incorrect because there is no mention of eligible women, and because the act of chasing one’s hat is not described as being very impressive—in spite of being quite demanding. (D) is incorrect because the set of instructions for recovering a hat does end with advice on how to seize it and return it to one’s head. (E) is incorrect because the only influence the presence of an audience seems to have on the “pursuit of his own hat” is to make the chaser act unperturbed, which would arguably make the pursuit more difficult rather than easier.

15.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (E) is correct because the phrase “charitable commiseration” means the sympathy of others present; the narrator states in lines 9-10 that those who lose their hats receive very little of this, despite the “ludicrous distress” they feel. Later, in lines 19-20, the narrator indicates that those watching think of the whole thing as a “joke.” (A) is incorrect. The cited lines show that people watching are amused and unsympathetic, making them unlikely to offer help. (B) is incorrect. The narrator states that observers offer “little charitable commiseration,” meaning that they are unlikely to feel distressed on one’s behalf. (C) is incorrect. The paragraph deals in general terms with the experience of losing a hat and does not address Mr. Pickwick in particular. (D) is incorrect. The lines in question don’t state anything about small towns.

16.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (C) is correct because Mr. Winkle sees his “venerated leader” chasing after his own hat, a situation that is described as humbling and embarrassing—but also in “humorous” terms. Since the Mr. Pickwick is Mr. Winkle’s “venerated leader,” to see him engaged in a silly and embarrassing pursuit of his hat would also be “ironic” in the sense that it would violate the expectation of the dignity of a venerated leader. (A) is incorrect because “exemplary behavior” is behavior that other people should imitate, and the passage does not suggest that Mr. Pickwick is doing an unusually good job chasing his hat. (B) is incorrect both because chasing a hat is not described as ambitious (though it may be difficult) and because Mr. Pickwick is not described as having a generally ambitious character. (D) is incorrect because the passage does not suggest that Mr. Pickwick could never have caught his hat, and he does catch it by the end. (E) is incorrect because, even though it may be embarrassing for a “venerated leader” to have to chase his hat, the passage does not suggest it is “inappropriate” or something he should not be doing.

17.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a line in the poem. (C) is correct because “thou” can be translated to “you” and “may’st” means “may.” If you substitute these into the original line you get: “That time of year you may in me behold.” If you transpose the structure of this sentence you get: “You may in me behold that time of year.” By rearranging and adding the preposition “in me” to the end of the line you get the correct answer: “You may behold that time of year in me.” (A) and (D) are incorrect because they reverse the objects of “see” and in:” you can behold “that time of year” in “me,” not the other way around. The speaker is saying that, if you look at him, you can see a season, not that you can only see him at some specific time of year. (B) is incorrect because it incorrectly interprets “thou” as they.” (E) incorrectly interprets “thou may’st,” which means “you may,” as a reference to the month of May.

18.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the quoted lines. (C) is correct because of the poem’s last two lines, which can be paraphrased “You see this, and it makes your love stronger; you love me more deeply because you’ll lose me soon.” The thing that the addressee sees is the speaker’s advancing age, which is the subject of the first twelve lines of the poem. (A) and (B) are incorrect because the speaker does not attempt to persuade the person to remain or leave; he simply states that the addressee loves him more deeply because he is aging. (D) and (E) are incorrect because the speaker describes his advancing age as something the addressee is already well aware of: he says it is something “thou may’st...behold” (line 1), something “you can see” without his needing to point it out or emphasize it.

19.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to identify a central theme of the poem. (D) is correct because the imagery of trees losing their leaves and birds abandoning the branches in which they used to sing is imagery of “decline,” and it establishes a thematic pattern that later images follow. The imagery if twilight, night, and descent into sleep is a kind of decline, as is the image of a fire burning down to ash. (A) is incorrect because, while the birds abandon the bough, that theme does not recur throughout the poem. (B) is incorrect because, while the “time of year” described in the first lines is autumn, a theme of “autumn” does not recur through the poem. (C) is incorrect because the imagery of sleep occurs in the description of night in lines 5-9, not in lines 1-4. (D) is incorrect because, while singing is mentioned in these lines, that theme does not recur.

20.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (A) is correct because “black night” takes away “Which;” you just need to work out what “which” is standing in for. The key is that line 6 is a parenthetical—something that could be bracketed off or removed. If you cut that line, you get “In me thou see’st the twilight of such day / which by-and-by black night doth take away.” Looking at it this way, it’s clearer that “which” refers back to “the twilight,” so that’s what “black night” takes away. (B) is incorrect. It is “twilight,” the last light of day on the horizon, that is taken away by the black night—not sunrise, which follows the night. (C) is incorrect because “starlight” is not mentioned at all in the sentence running from lines 5-8. (D) and (E) are incorrect because, although the “twilight” being taken away by the “black night” is a metaphor for the speaker’s aging, the “black night” is not actually taking away “the speaker” or his “life.”

21.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (B) is correct because “Bare ruin’d choirs” is a metaphor that compares “those boughs...where late the sweet birds sang” to a church that choruses used to sing in. (A) and (C) are tempting because the metaphor “Bare ruin’d choirs” does evoke a cathedral and empty pews. However, it literally refers to tree branches, which are being compared to those other things. (D) is incorrect because the poem suggests that the birds have left because of the “time of year” and the “cold” (lines 1-2); it does not mention a nest in the tree or on the ground. (E) is incorrect because a choir is a group of singers (or the part of the church they sing in), not a single singer. Also, “ruin’d” follows “yellow leaves, or none, or few” and “bare,” (lines 2-4) which suggest that the “ruin” in this case is physical rather than social or professional.

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (B) is correct because the commas around “Death’s second self” indicate that it is an appositive phrase—in other words, that it tells you more about on a noun or noun clause comes just before it. The closest noun phrase is “black night,” and this interpretation is supported by the rest of line 8: “Death’s second self” “seals up all in rest.” Since things rest at night, it makes sense for night to be what “seals up all in rest.” (A) is incorrect because the words “Death’s second self’ imply something similar but not identical to death. Death can’t be its own “second self”—it’s its first self! (C) and (E) are incorrect because, grammatically, “Death’s second self” must be giving you more information about a word or phrase that has already appeared in the sentence. If “Death’s second self” meant “sleep,” the poem would be saying that “black night” is “sleep,” which it’s not: sleep happens at night, but it isn’t the same thing as night. (D) is incorrect because an appositive phrase like this usually refers back to the most recent noun. “Black night” is closer than “sunset,” so it’s much more likely to be correct. Also, it’s not the “sunset” that “seals up all in rest;” people sleep during “black night,” not as soon as the sun sets.

23.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to identify a literary device used in the passage by name. (D) is correct because the repeated “s” sounds in “Death’s second self, that seals up all in rest” is an example of sibilance. Sibilance is a specific type of alliteration that relies on the repetition of soft consonant sounds like “s” in words to create a wooshing or hissing sound. (A) is incorrect because the repeated “s” sounds are not an example of assonance. Assonance is the repetition of a vowel sound or diphthong in non-rhyming words. (C) is incorrect because the repeated “s” sounds are not an example of onomatopoeia, not an example of onomatopoeia, the use of language to imitate a sound in the world (like “bang” or “ding”). (E) is incorrect because this is not an example of cacophony, a harsh, discordant mixture of sounds.

24.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to identify specific, named literary devices in the passage. (A) is correct because it is ironic to be “consum’d with,” or “eaten by,” something that has previously “nourish’d,” or “fed,” you. Whether we are talking about a fire or a human life (and in this poem they are metaphorically collapsed together) we don’t normally expect to be eaten by the things we eat. Such reversals of outcome are situational irony. (B) is incorrect because a mythical allusion is a reference to a figure from mythology. While there are certainly many myths that involve fire, none of them are specifically invoked here. (C) is incorrect because “satire” uses humor to make a social or political criticism; in this line there’s no apparent target for such criticism. (D) is incorrect because an approximate rhyme requires two words that sound very similar; it also tends not to occur within just one line. (E) is incorrect because enjambment is a phenomenon that occurs across multiple lines, not just one.

25.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you analyze tensions that are revealed in the passage. (C) is correct because, while Laura experiences tensions that involve both family and class, her loyalty to family and her loyalty to her class are not in tension with one another: they are aligned. That is, her family pressures her to behave in the way that is expected of people of her class; if she rebelled against one, she’d be rebelling against both. (A) is incorrect because Laura has a moral impulse to stop the party because her neighbors are mourning a death, but that impulse is in tension with the social inequality that exists between the families: Laura’s neighbors aren’t the sort of people that her family should have to call off a party for. (D) is incorrect because Laura idealistically believes that they should cancel the party because someone has died. Her mother, on the other hand, is blasé abut the death: once she finds out it didn’t happen in the garden, she doesn’t really care. She even insults the kind of people that it happened to. (E) is incorrect because Laura struggles with her feeling that it would be more virtuous not to have the party and her temptation to enjoy the party in her nice new dress, ultimately succumbing to the temptation to indulge with some encouragement from her mother.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (A) is correct because the only information about the story Laura tells comes from her statement “Mother, a man’s been killed,” leading the reader to believe that “the dreadful story” in in reference to this event, and since someone being killed is unpleasant, this is most likely involved in the story Laura tells. (B) and (C) are incorrect because the story Laura shares is not shared with the reader, and neither the narrator or Laura’s mother make any comment on how the story was told, so it is impossible to judge whether Laura’s telling or the story itself was confusing or overly dramatic. (D) is incorrect because the theme of morality does not appear in this scene until Laura expresses how to deal with the news of the death, which comes after her telling of it. The words “she told the dreadful story” give no information about which, if any, moral revelations this story makes, so it is impossible to name this as the reason for this story being characterized as “dreadful.” (E) is not correct because there is no mention of fear or a threat from the dead man (the subject of Laura’s story) in Laura’s story, in her mother’s reaction to the story, or anywhere else in the passage.

27.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (E) is correct because this interaction occurs just after Laura has tried to persuade her mother to stop the party. Failing to persuade her mother, she has had to accept her argument, but it still feels “all wrong” (lines 26-27) and “terribly heartless” (line 29). Finally, the most direct explanation for why she turns away is that she “couldn’t look at herself” (lines 36-37), which show that Laura is turning away because of feelings about herself—in this case, because of her family’s heartlessness, and maybe of her inability to persuade them. (A) is incorrect because Laura never sees herself in the mirror her mother offers her and therefore never has the chance to form an opinion about it. (B) is incorrect because Laura’s mother tells Laura how pretty she looks directly before showing her the mirror in an attempt to “prove” or at least show this to Laura. The hat is symbolic of the party Laura’s mother wants to proceed with, so showing her the mirror is encouraging Laura, not shaming her. (C) is incorrect because Laura “couldn’t look at herself” (lines 36-37), indicating an emotional aversion. That’s not the same as a choice made to influence someone else’s behavior. (D) is incorrect because Laura isn’t accused of behaving absurdly until after she turns away from the mirror, and she doesn’t start to think that maybe she’s being a little extravagant until the end of the passage. At this point, she still wants to protest.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (C) is correct because the only detail Laura’s mother asks about is whether the man died in the garden, and she is completely relieved when she learns that he did not. Since the family is preparing for a party, we can infer that the party will occur (at least partly) in the garden, and Mrs. Sheridan is relieved because if a man had died in the garden it really would have interrupted the preparations for the party. (A), (B), and (D) are incorrect because the location of the death is the only detail that Mrs. Sheridan asks about, and it’s all that she needs to know to feel relieved. (E) is incorrect because the man who died was nearly a neighbor; her neighbors therefore probably will hear about the incident, but that doesn’t bother her.

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (B) is correct because Laura’s mother decides to go ahead with her party despite Laura’s caution that the family of the recently deceased man will hear their celebration, indicating she has a lack of respect for their tragic situation. (A) is not correct because Laura’s mother never displays any generous behavior, and in fact tells Laura that the people Laura calls “nearly neighbours” (line 17) “don’t expect sacrifices from us” (line 41), indicating that she does not plan on giving anything to this group of people. (C) is not correct because there is no indication that Laura’s mother has been treated unfairly by these people. (D) is incorrect because Laura’s mother expressly indicates that they are not obliged to make sacrifices for “people like that” (line 41). (E) is incorrect because it implies that Laura’s mother looks for ways to antagonize her neighbours, while the situation presented in this passage simply reveals that she doesn’t particularly care about them.

30.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (C) is correct because not only does Laura sense that her mother “seemed amused” (line 20) at her assumption that the party would be cancelled, her mother instructs her to “use your common sense” (line 21) before explaining why she thinks the party should still go on, as if this is the ‘correct’ answer instead of just another opinion. This reaction fits with the term “naive,” as both assume the subject has a lack of wisdom or “common sense.” (A) is incorrect because Mrs. Sheridan’s initial reaction is calm and even amused, meaning she most likely does not feel any danger from Laura’s suggestion that the party be cancelled. (B) is incorrect because Laura’s mother’s first reactions to Laura mention nothing about how obnoxious or virtuous her protests or character might be. (D) and (E) are incorrect because they imply that Mrs. Sheridan suspects Laura has an ulterior motive, but there’s no evidence in the passage to support that idea.

31.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (A) is correct because Laura’s question “Mother, isn’t it terribly heartless of us?” expresses her misgivings about the party in light of the neighbor’s death, which is directly followed by Laura’s mother giving her the hat. Laura’s mother wants to stop Laura’s misgivings and gives her the hat to shift her interest away from the neighbor and toward more pleasant topics, such as fashion and youthful beauty. (B) is incorrect because Laura’s mother urges Laura to look at herself with the hat on, as she states directly before offering her the mirror, not her intuitions, which wouldn’t be visible in her physical reflection. As well, Laura’s mother is very open about how she believes Laura should handle her intuitions, so it is unlikely that she would give Laura the freedom to consider them herself. (C) is incorrect because suggesting death is only a transition much like changing clothes is a comforting sentiment that normalizes death, however Laura’s mother is not trying to comfort her in the face of death. Laura’s mother ignores the fact that death has even been brought up and uses the hat (a symbol of the party) to keep the conversation focused on the party. (D) is incorrect because Laura’s mother is not forceful in the way she gives Laura the hat and mirror. Laura’s mothers “pops” the hat on Laura, a more playful action than assertive, and addresses Laura with affectionate names like “Darling” and “My child.” Even though it is likely that Laura’s mother is using flattery to manipulate Laura into behaving how she wants, this tactic is much more subversive than “assert” implies. (E) is not correct because amusement is not implied from the action or dialogue of Laura’s mother giving her the hat. Laura’s mother speaks of how nice the hat looks, and so it may be implied that she feels pride in her daughter’s physical appearance, however there is no evidence for amusement here. The passage does state that Laura’s mother is amused during her interaction with Laura, but this amusement only comes from Laura’s feelings and not as the result of any of the mother’s actions.

32.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (D) is correct because Laura doesn’t reach a conclusion about what’s right or wrong; she just suspends her concern by vowing to “remember it again after the party’s over.” (A) is incorrect because even though Laura spends most of the passage voicing her oppositions to the party, there is no indication that she feels so strongly as to ruin the party. (B) is incorrect because Laura is not said to forget the tragic events that upset her; the images of the events return to her mind while she is thinking about what to do—they just seem less real than when they first happened, so she is able to move on to other things. (C) is incorrect because Laura’s plan to “remember it again after the party’s over,” suggests she plans on getting back to her feelings, indicating that she does not feel what she has done so far has been enough. (E) is incorrect because Laura’s moral dilemma is about whether it’s right to have the party at all: she wants to enjoy the party, but she doesn’t want to be heartless. Her mother tries to placate her with a nice hat and a lovely dress—not the other way around.

33.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (B) is correct because “Absurd” is used to criticize Laura’s objections to the party, which Laura’s mother deems as inappropriate given the families’ different socio-economic positions and her prioritization of her party guests over her neighbors. Laura’s mother tells Laura the “correct” way of reacting to the situation in an effort to show her how unreasonable her plea to cancel the party is, which “foolish, meaning lacking sound judgement, matches. (A) is incorrect because “fantastic” implies Laura’s mother’s comment means she believes her daughter is either exceptionally good for wanting to cancel their party (which is quite the opposite of how she feels), or that Laura is not in touch with reality. While Laura’s mother believes her to be naive, this is not strong enough to imply that Laura’s opinions are generally outlandish, just unrealistic in the context of the situation. (C) is not correct because Laura is quite unassuming and soft spoken in her protests and does not employ any ridiculous or humorous strategies to get her point across, making it unlikely that her mother would view her beliefs as “farcical.” (D) is incorrect because if Laura was being accused of being “risible,” her comments would be made in order to make her mother laugh instead of to persuade her mother on the serious matter involving the recent death of a neighbor. (E) is incorrect because Laura’s mother has just “lost patience” directly before telling Laura of her absurdity, which she does so “coldly,” implying Laura’s comments are not “droll,” or amusing, in any way.

34.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the quoted lines. Consider the effect of the author’s choice in comparison to other possible choices. (D) is correct because Laura’s mother is said to have “lost patience” immediately before making her last comments, and makes them “coldly,” which imply a stern tone. As well, Laura’s mother’s accusation that Laura is spoiling everybody’s enjoyment can be seen as a rebuke because it is an act of shaming someone for their behavior. (A) is incorrect because Laura’s mother is only shaming her daughter for her suggestion to cancel the party, and in no way suggests (subtly or otherwise) that she plans on bringing harm to Laura because of her feelings. (B) is incorrect because even though this reply could be seen as Laura’s mother attempting to excuse her decision to continue with the party with flawed moral priorities, she is in no way desperate. It is clear that she will ultimately decide whether the party will continue, and never expresses that she feels threatened by her daughter, which might lead her to act in a desperate way. (C) is not correct because Laura’s mother is said to have lost patience right before this line, and says this line “coldly,” which contradicts the idea that this could be characterized as “gentle.” As well, the term “rejoinder” characterizes a reply as witty, which is not accurate of Laura’s mother’s humorless and straight-forward reply. (E) is incorrect because even though Laura’s mother is making a clarification by explaining to her why Laura should stop behaving the way she is, the term “stoical” implies Laura’s mother is secretly suffering as she explains, which is not indicated anywhere in this passage.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. I is true, as indicated by the fact that Ruth and Mama both laugh at the comment. II is true because the comment, in context, suggests that Beneatha’s need to “express herself” is actually just a kind of self-involvement; it’s her way of being “sweet on” or “enamored of” herself. III is false because the tone of Ruth’s comment isn’t reflective, and because she doesn’t actually take seriously the idea that Beneatha needs to “express herself.” She’s using the comment as a way of mocking Beneatha for being conspicuously self-involved—not representing a universal human desire. Because only I and II are true, (D) is correct.

36.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (C) is correct because, according to Ruth, Beneatha’s riding habit has “been hanging in the closet ever since” (lines 21-22) she bought it. A “riding habit” is an outfit for riding. (A), (B), (D), and (E) all use behavioral senses of “habit.” They may be tempting because this could be interpreted as figurative language intended to imply that Beneatha’s hobby has been hanging in the closet, but they all have an additional connotation of continuous interest and attention, and the line suggests that Beneatha has not actually been paying any attention to the “habit.”

37.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to identify a central theme of the passage. (D) is correct because the entire passage centers around Beneatha’s inability to effectively justify her actions and thoughts to Mama and Ruth, who disagree with her in almost every line. Beneatha repeatedly expresses how she values freedom from being stuck with one interest while Mama and Ruth chastise her for this, and Beneatha rejects the idea of continuing a romance with George based on his wealth alone, while Ruth implies Beneatha is being too picky. (A) is incorrect because Ruth and Beneatha’s relationship is characterized by Ruth’s constant antagonism of Beneatha, rather than a two-sided attempt at the same achievement. As well, Ruth and Beneatha’s arguing is not the subject of this passage but a mere vehicle to explore Beneatha’s romantic and interests and her family’s reactions to these. (B) and (C) are incorrect because Beneatha’s curiosity and varied interests are received as annoying and flighty, and it is implied that they are not important and that she would benefit from settling down. (E) is incorrect because the idea of self-expression is mainly mocked in this excerpt.

38.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine the sense of a phrase in the passage. (C) is correct because the phrase “sweet on” traditionally refers to feelings of infatuation toward someone. The women are teasing Beneatha about her date, George Murchinson, and use the romantic connotations attached to “sweet on” to first embarrass Beneatha, and then to imply that she’s really infatuated only with herself. (A) is incorrect because Ruth only uses “sweet on” because Mama uses it in her line directly before this one to ask whether Beneatha has romantic feelings towards George. Ruth is keeping the term’s “sweet on” romantic implications, which do not require a commitment to the subject of those feelings. (B) is not correct because this is too literal a translation. The “sweet” is not referring to something literally sweet (like sugar), but instead the sweetness of romantic love. (D) is incorrect because the term “sweet on” is specific to romantic feelings, while “boastful” is specific to feelings of pride. (E) is incorrect because “sweet on” generally and in this context has specifically romantic connotations; while one might be happy to be infatuated with someone, that’s not always true, and “happy about” has many other possible meanings—so it’s too imprecise.

39.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the quoted lines. (A) is correct because Mama is “Smiling” as she says this line, which suggests that she is speaking in a friendly way even though her words sound critical. (B), (C), and (E) are incorrect because the author specifically indicates that Mama is “Smiling” as she says this line, implying that she is not upset, as “exasperation,” “outraged,” or “outburst” would suggest. (D) is incorrect because “sardonic” suggests an aggressive, mocking tone which doesn’t match “Smiling.”

40.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to consider the relationships between characters in the passage. (E) is correct because Ruth spends the entire passage antagonizing Beneatha, from shaming her for purchasing horseback riding equipment she never used to undermining Beneatha’s claims that her varied interests are honest attempts at expressing herself. As well, Ruth accuses Beneatha of being in love with herself, and two of her lines towards Beneatha are characterized as “For devilment” and “Glad to add kindling,” implying she enjoys provoking her sister-in-law. (A) is not correct, as Ruth never speaks to or about her sister-in-law with words or a tone that show any kindness or admiration. (B) is incorrect because Ruth’s behaviour toward Beneatha is uniform throughout the passage, implying she does not have conflicting feelings about her sister-in-law. (C) is incorrect because there is nothing that both sisters-in-law are working towards. You might think that Ruth and Beneatha are competing for Mama’s attention or affection, but there’s nothing in this passage that directly supports that idea. (D) is incorrect because, while Ruth herself stays calm, her consistent attempts to provoke or belittle Beneatha show that she is not trying to establish any sort of peace between them.

41.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (E) is correct because Mama has just accused Beneatha of flitting “from one thing to another.” Beneatha defends herself in this line by explaining that she has a deeper reason for frequently switching hobbies: she is “experiment[ing] with different forms of expression.” (A) is incorrect because the preceding lines imply that Beneatha has long had an interest in a wide range of activities. (B) is incorrect because, although Beneatha may be flustered by the challenges posed by her mother and Ruth, she is not ashamed; she is defending her interests. (C) is incorrect because Beneatha is speaking with her family. She is rejecting the notion that is is flighty, not the notion that her family believes that. (D) is incorrect because there’s no evidence that Beneatha was previously self-conscious about her varied interests. The context of the conversation suggests she has long been happy to explore many activities.

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to consider the relationships between characters in the passage. (D) is correct because Mama is frustrated that her daughter won’t focus on one hobby (“Why you got to flit so from one thing to another, baby?,” lines 23-24), and Ruth is annoyed by Beneatha’s self-importance (“You ask me, this child ain’t sweet on nobody but herself,” lines 45-46). Near the end of the passage, Mama is “Outraged” (line 66) at Beneatha’s criticisms of Walter, another of Mama’s children. (A) is incorrect because, although Mama and Ruth’s questions about Beneatha’s hobbies do show some interest in her future, Ruth is definitely not concerned: her tone throughout the passage is aggressive, not sympathetic or worried. (B) is not correct because only Beneatha expresses the opinion that Walter is neurotic. Mama is outraged at this suggestion; and Ruth explains Beneatha’s meaning to Mama but doesn’t say whether she agrees with it. (C) is incorrect because the only time Ruth or Mama speak of exhaustion is to ask Beneatha when she will grow tired of her newest interest. “Overworked” implies Beneatha is tired from too much work, not tired of one specific interest. (E) is incorrect because only Ruth seems to be pushing Beneatha towards George Murchinson by challenging Beneatha’s critique of his shallowness and implying Beneatha is being too picky by asking “Well—what other qualities a man got to have to satisfy you, little girl?” (line 67-68).

43.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of several characters in the passage. (C) is correct because Ruth and Mama refer to Beneatha as “child” (lines 15, 25, and others), “baby” (line 23) and “little girl” (line 62), which shows that they think of her as immature. Both of them laugh again when Ruth suggests that Beneatha “ain’t sweet on nobody but herself”—in other words, that she is self-involved. (A) is incorrect because Beneatha has been genuine about her feelings towards her shifting interests for the entire passage, so it would not make sense for her to suddenly mock herself, especially since she spends half the passage defending her motivation of self-expression. (B) is incorrect because Beneatha is not making an argument. When she says that what she wants to express is “Me!” she is only repeating what she said before (“People have to express themselves,” line 34), not offering an argument to support that earlier claim. (D) is incorrect because Beneatha hasn’t kept her desire for self-expression a secret, and Mama and Ruth’s questions weren’t tricks designed to get the secret from her. Beneatha has been very open about her feelings, and Mama and Ruth’s questions suggest that they just don’t think Beneatha’s feelings on this subject make sense. (E) is incorrect because there’s no evidence in this excerpt that Mama and Ruth would be unhappy without Beneatha around.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (B) is correct because Ruth’s direction when saying this line is “For devilment,” meaning she is speaking this line to stir trouble within the conversation. Ruth has singled out a vague statement of Beneatha’s to bring attention to its risqué connotations, which would most likely shock Mama as Beneatha’s mother. (A) and (D) are incorrect because “For devilment” shows that Ruth’s goal is causing mischief, not learning exactly what Beneatha means. In fact, she probably suspects that Beneatha said “and stuff” without meaning anything specific; Ruth is causing by trouble by misleadingly suggesting that Beneatha did have something specific (and embarrassing) in mind. (C) is incorrect both because Ruth’s stage direction shows that she’s just causing trouble and “and stuff” is intentionally vague, so it is inherently imprecise, but hard to use incorrectly. (E) is tempting because someone else could ask this question to gently tease Beneatha about what she’s been doing on her dates. Ruth, however, has been so consistently critical of Beneatha that it would be strange for her to be friendly here, and the stage direction “For devilment” shows that she is trying to cause trouble.

45.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to identify the purpose of a portion of the passage. (A) is correct because the focus of the passage is on Sylvia’s preoccupation with the tree and how she will manage making the climb so she can watch for the heron and discover where its nest is hidden. and discover where its nest is hidden. Therefore, the most important function of the first paragraph is to act as an introduction to this central focus. (B) is tempting because the tree, the ocean, and the forest are all described in the passage; it is incorrect, however, because the point of the passage is Sylvia’s plan to climb the tree. (C) is incorrect because the focus of the paragraph is on the tree and Sylvia’s feelings about it; there is no question concerning environmental conservation or any other topic. (D) is incorrect because there is no indication that a reader would have a particular perception of rural and agrarian life, so there is no need to challenge that. (E) is incorrect because, in the context of the passage, Sylvia’s plan to climb the tree is presented as potentially dangerous only to herself, not to the environment.

46.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (C) is correct because “aspiration” is the hope to achieve something, and Sylvia is driven to climb the tree so that she can accomplish her goal of discovering the hidden nest of the heron. (A) is not correct because “avarice” is greed or acquisitiveness. This might be tempting if you imagined that Sylvia was seeking the nest to steal and sell the heron’s eggs, but that’s not supported by the passage. It’s possible that she could take something to “make known the secret,” (line 22) but she doesn’t seem to think that will make her rich. (B) is incorrect because the definition of “pretension” that most closely relates to ambition is “an assertion of a claim to something,” which is not descriptive of Sylvia’s decision to climb the tree. (D) is incorrect because, while “enterprise” means a difficult undertaking, if you substituted this word for “ambition” it would not make sense. (E), “goal,” is incorrect for the same reason (D) is: it is not a suitable replacement for “ambition” in this context.

47.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify the tone of the passage. (E) is correct because the paragraph describes Sylvia’s assessment of her plan in terms that imply a kind of awed wonder at her own audacity, and an excitement about the adventures to come. (A) may be tempting because Sylvia seems optimistic about her ability to climb the tree but is incorrect because her intense enthusiasm is not “mellow.” (B) is incorrect because while Sylvia is excited by the prospect of finding the location of the heron’s nest, the plan seems to be a new impulse in the spirt of adventure, not an obsession; and while she is eager to find the heron’s nest, “covetousness” is too strong implies a desire for possession. (C) is incorrect because Sylvia is feeling positive about the future prospect of finding the heron’s nest, while “wistfulness” and “regret” both reference feeling negative about things in the past. (D) is incorrect because “amity” implies friendliness towards others, but Sylvia seems to be planning to undertake her adventure alone.

48.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify the best description of a character in the passage. (E) is correct because Sylvia’s thoughts about climbing the tree focus on the potential danger involved and her excitement about what she will see when she is at the top, which characterizes her as daring and courageous. (A) is incorrect because Sylvia seems to have little doubt that she will achieve her goals, so she does not have a negative future outlook as she would if she were pessimistic, nor is she gloomy or sad as she would be if she were dour. (B) is incorrect because while Sylvia confidence that she will successfully make the climb may be naive, she is aware that there is some danger involved so it is inaccurate to characterize her as “carefree.” (C) is incorrect because while Sylvia carefully considers how she will approach climbing the tree, her willingness to put herself in a perilous position indicates that she is not too afraid to make the climb, as she would be if she were “petrified.” (D) is incorrect because while making the climb may not be the most responsible choice, Sylvia is too determined to be considered “apathetic.”

49.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify the central theme of the passage. (E) is the correct answer because this passage is primarily concerned with Sylvia’s view of the natural world, which is informed by her childhood perspective on the land she grew up in; she is curious about that world and her plan shows that she has an intrepid spirit. (A) is incorrect because, while Sylvia is innocent in the sense that she lacks guile, the focus of the passage is on the climb she will make, not one she has already experienced. (B) is incorrect because the passage is more concerned with Sylvia’s plan to conquer nature by climbing the tree. (C) is incorrect because there is no mention of family ties and ancestral lineage; the only reference to the past is when the passage considers the long-gone woodcutters. (D) is incorrect because while Sylvia anticipates encountering wild animals in their natural state, she has no intention of capturing any of them.

50.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a phrase in the passage. (A) is correct because, in the context of the passage, the plan to climb the pine tree is, indeed, a “great enterprise.” (B) is tempting because Sylvia plans to climb the oak tree to get to the great pine, it is incorrect because that is not the whole plan. (C) is also tempting because Sylvia is keeping her plan secret, it is incorrect because “the great enterprise” would begin only after Sylvia had reached the pine tree. (D) is incorrect because the white heron is not being held captive and Sylvia’s goal is to determine the location of its hidden nest. (E) is incorrect because Sylvia has no intention of leaving home.

51.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to identify specific, named literary devices in the passage. (B) is correct because in these lines two unlike things are compared as being “like” one another. (A) is incorrect because these lines do not reveal a meaning hidden within the lines, as an allegory would. (C) is incorrect because the lines do not substitute an inoffensive expression for one that might suggest something unpleasant. (D) is incorrect because there is no exaggeration in these lines. (E) may be tempting because Sylvia imagines her feet and fingers as being like bird’s claws; it is incorrect, however, because personification means to represent a thing as a person.

52.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (B) is correct because “dumb” is a descriptor of the silent forest. (A) is incorrect because “childish” describes Sylvia’s heart. (C) is incorrect because “small” is used to describe Sylvia. (D) is incorrect because Sylvia is described as “silly.” (E) is incorrect because, in Sylvia’s imagination, the red squirrel will see her as being “harmless.”

53.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to identify the genre of the passage. (B) is correct because the passage is concerned with telling the story of Sylvia’s planned adventure in a rural setting that is described in lush and romantic language. Such settings are considered “pastoral”; pastoral literatures tend to use idealized rural settings to make broad commentaries on the human condition. (A) is incorrect because a satirical commentary would hold Sylvia’s behavior up to ridicule and that is not accurate. (C) is incorrect because the passage is not specifically concerned with analyzing Sylvia’s character. (D) is incorrect because an “extended metaphor” compares two unlike things throughout a passage and, in this case, nothing is being compared. (E) is incorrect because an allegory can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning, which is not the case in this passage.

54.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze the perspective of the poem’s speaker. (B) is correct because, in lines 1-5, the speaker says that though she too dislikes poetry, that there is “after all, a place for the genuine” in it. Later, in lines 33-45 she says that real poetry will come from those who rise “above insolence and triviality” but instead give “the raw material of poetry… and that which is on the other hand, genuine.” Her repetition of the word “genuine” coupled with her description of “rawness” in opposition to “triviality” shows that she is interested in authentic, genuine poetry rather than silly or artificial poetry. (A) is incorrect because though the speaker mentions contempt in line 3, she describes how even reading with contempt, she still finds “a place for the genuine.” (C) is incorrect because in lines 15-16 the speaker says that “we do not admire what / we do not understand” in reference to “derivative” and “unintelligible poetry (lines 12-13). (D) is incorrect because other than using the word “autocrats” in line 33 to refer to insincere poets, the speaker does not discuss politics or social issues. (E) is incorrect because though she describes several “phenomena” (line 28), the speaker is interested in the “genuine” nature of these phenomena rather than their scientific value.

55.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify the tone of a phrase in the passage. (E) is correct because, since the speaker is herself a poet, one can infer that she does not truly dislike poetry, or at least not all poetry. Instead, she is speaking ironically, being funny, and perhaps referring to the kind of poetry she does not prefer. (A) is incorrect because the poem’s vigorous argumentative structure and the speaker’s continued belief in “the genuine” don’t fit with a characterization of her tone as “resigned and sad.” (B) is incorrect because “spiteful and vindicated” suggest someone who’s gleeful about a victory over an enemy. In this poem, there’s no clearly identifiable victory, let alone an enemy. (C) is incorrect because the speaker’s position is too nuanced to fit with a characterization of her tone as righteous or smug. She finds “the genuine” in poetry despite an acknowledgement that many “despise” it; admitting that she sometimes despises it too is an act of humility, in a way, which also doesn’t fit with smugness. (D) is incorrect because the speaker never elaborates on what she means by the “genuine”; it could have a social or political dimension, but these ideas are not mentioned explicitly. (E) is incorrect because, while the speaker’s language sometimes resembles that of a scientist, she is not searching for scientific information as such.

56.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the poem. (C) is correct because the speaker says that there are “things that are important / beyond all this fiddle,” which implies that “fiddle” is unimportant and easily dismissed. Since “fiddle” refers to “poetry,” which is something the speaker has just claimed to dislike, you can eliminate (A), (B), and (E) because they are positive things. Because confusion is something that consumes one’s thoughts and is not easily dismissible, (D) is also incorrect. The best answer is “nonsense,” since it is easily dismissible and not positive.

57.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the referenced lines. (D) is correct because, in line 8, the speaker says “these things are important” in reference to the images she brings up in likes 6-8, implying that this is true because they are “genuine,” not because “a high-sounding interpretation can be put upon them” (lines 5-10). Similarly, in line 28, the speaker says that “all these phenomena are important,” referring to the images she brings up in lines 16-23. This means that the speaker believes these images may be appropriate poetic topics, if handled correctly. (A) is incorrect because the speaker indicates that these topics already exist in poetry, but with “high-sounding interpretations” put upon them, which she disapproves of. (B) is incorrect because she approves of these topics. (C) is incorrect because the speaker does not mean to mock anyone who misunderstands modern poetry, but to discuss how modern poetry may be made better. (E) is incorrect because these topics are given as examples of topics to be discussed by poets.

58.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (E) is correct because, looking at lines 29-39, you can see that they form a single sentence. So, you can break down the sentence and find the antecedent for “it” in line 39. In line 32, the speaker says that “when dragged into prominence by half poets, the result is not poetry, nor till… shall we have it.” In the middle, she describes all the conditions which are necessary to have “it:” being “literalists of the imagination,” rising “above insolence and triviality,” making “imaginary gardens with real toads in them.” Breaking it down, it becomes clear that the speaker is referring to “poetry,” given the above conditions.

59.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to interpret the meaning or effect of an image or symbol in the passage. (A) is correct because the phrase “imaginary gardens” is analogous to the fictional worlds that poets create, while “real toads” can be interpreted to mean solid and truthful things contained within those imaginary (or fictional) worlds. This is supported by the author’s interest in the “genuine” and “literalists of the imagination,” or those who can make imaginary things feel real. (B) is incorrect because the speaker never says that poets should not be imaginative, but rather that they should make their imagined worlds be more “genuine” with less “triviality.” (C) is incorrect because the speaker never claims that poetry should warn anyone about anything. (D) is incorrect because the “real toads” still sit in “imaginary gardens,” and the speaker never mentions the natural sciences as a source of insight. (E) is incorrect because toads are not related to strict decorum.

60.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze the diction of the poem. (B) is correct because the passage develops a distinctly literary and academic tone, by discussing cases that could be cited, the phenomena of poetry, works that are “so derivative as to / become unintelligible” (lines 12-13), and ultimately by developing a thesis about poetry—a form of literature. Finally, the speaker’s definitive judgements, shown in phrases like “one must” (line 29) and the speaker’s thought on what is and is not “genuine,” are indicative of a critical style. (A) and (E) are incorrect because the speaker doesn’t use any words that specifically relate to the culinary arts or architecture. (C) and (D) are incorrect because, while the speaker does use animals and their body parts and statisticians and business documents as examples, she mentions them only in passing and while developing a literary argument.

61.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to make inferences about the poem’s intended audience. (D) is correct because the speaker begins by saying that she “too” dislikes poetry, implying that the reader dislikes poetry as well. Then, throughout the duration of the poem, she builds an argument that “there is in it, after all, a place for the genuine” (lines 4-5). The speaker’s tone is also slightly academic and teacherly. (B) is incorrect because of the speaker’s tone and lack of familiarity. (A), (C), and (E) are incorrect because the speaker gives a description of the contemporary state of poetry and discusses how “we cannot understand” poetic forms; experienced poets, professors, and critics would be aware of the state of poetry, and likely have a deep understanding of it. More specifically, most experienced poets and professors of literature already love poetry, and so would not need to be convinced that it is worthwhile as a genre. Meanwhile, the speaker’s tone is not defensive, as it would be if she were responding to a hostile critic.