1.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to correctly identify the tensions that do not manifest throughout the passage. (E) is correct because, although there is a contrast between the darkness in the streets and the light from the inns, that is artificial light—not daylight. The entire passage takes place at night. (A) is incorrect because there is a tension between the narrator’s lavish descriptions of the two comfortable inns and his inability to afford them. (B) is incorrect because there is tension between the “gloom” and “darkness” in lines 11-12 and the “fervent rays” and “broad glare” from the inns described in lines 20-27. (C) is incorrect because there is tension between the “bitingly cold and cheerless” night (line 6) and the fervent rays that “seemed to have melted the packed snow and ice” (lines 20-21). (D) is incorrect because Ishmael’s loneliness—he knows “no one in the place” (lines 6-7)—is in tension with the “jolly” inns filled with “the sounds of tinkling glasses” made by the groups within (lines 26-28).

2.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to interpret the effect of imagery in the passage. (B) is correct because “sounding” is the word for measuring the depth of the sea or other body of water, “grapnels” are the hooks used to bring things up from the seafloor, and the “few pieces of silver” are the paltry treasure found in the wreckage of his pocket. (A) is incorrect because, while fishing imagery also relates to the sea, to “sound” is not to fish, and “grapnels” are not fishing equipment. (C) is tempting because of the word “sounding;” however, since testing the acoustics of a space does not produce a physical object, this metaphor does not make sense as a description of Ishmael feeling for coins in his pocket. (D) may also be tempting because “grapnel” sounds like “grape,” and grape-shot is also related to boats. However, it is incorrect because “grapnel” means a grappling hook rather than a kind of ammunition. (E) may also be tempting because it describes looking for something valuable in water; it is, however, incorrect because prospecting for gold does not involve a “grapnel” or hook or “sounding” the depth of a body of water.

3.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to interpret figurative language. (C) is correct because the narrator is describing his surroundings as dark, dreary, and gloomy overall, and there is an implication that no matter which direction the narrator chooses he will end up in less-than-optimal conditions. (A) is incorrect because there is no indication in the text that there is a connection between gloom or darkness and any actual danger. (B) is incorrect because, although “darkness” can be a symbol for evil or shady behavior, there is no reason to think “darkness” is a symbol here rather than a literal description of the night. (D) is incorrect because, while it is true that the expense of finding suitable accommodations weighs heavily on the narrator, he decides that certain inns must be too expensive because they are bright, warm, and joyful—the opposite of gloomy and dark. (E) must be incorrect, because the narrator does encounter inns as he wanders the dark and gloomy streets.

4.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to determine the implications of this phrase in the context of the passage. (B) is correct because Ishmael has “only...a few pieces of silver” (line 8); that means he can’t be “too particular” (lines 14-15)—in other words, he has to take whatever he can get. Eventually, he heads for “the cheapest, if not the cheeriest inns” (line 33). All of this tells us that he can only afford cheap rooms. (A) is incorrect because there is no information in the passage about the narrator’s employer or about how much (or how little) that employer pays. (C) is incorrect because, while it may be accurate, it is not pertinent in this context. Ishmael has to settle for whatever he can afford—he’s not looking for an expensive, and therefore comfortable, room. (D) is incorrect because the event that prompts Ishmael to remind himself to “inquire the price” is that he finds only a little bit of money in his pocket. Since he also reminds himself not to “be too particular,” we can infer that he is more concerned about the price of a room than its quality—but nothing suggests the innkeepers might be deceitful. (E) is incorrect because the narrator never considers finding a roommate.

5.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (C) is correct because “harpoons” are used by whalers and “sword-fish” are marine animals, so the names have a maritime theme, which suggests that they cater to sailors or “mariners.” (A) is incorrect because harpoons are used to catch marine animals like whales, and sword-fish are sea creatures; people who catch sea creatures are called whalers or fishermen, not hunters. (B) is incorrect because swordfish and harpoons are not usually associated with soldiers. (D) is incorrect because a “brigand” is a member of a criminal gang. While you may associate pirates with maritime imagery, there’s no suggestion of any criminal element at the inns. (E) may be tempting because of the mention of swordfish, however chefs do not, as a rule, use harpoons while cooking swordfish (or any other delicacies).

6.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to determine the sense of a word in the specific context of the passage. (E) is correct because the narrator is explaining how the hard “service” the boots have provided him has resulted in their battered condition. Therefore, the best choice is “unremitting,” which means “never-ending” or “constant.” (A) is incorrect because “dauntless” means “determined” or “fearless,” and there is no reason to think the narrator’s boots are especially brave. (B) is incorrect because “irreproachable” means “faultless,” which is not a meaning of “remorseless.” Someone could have made mistakes but still be “remorseless” if he or she doesn’t feel regret. (C) and (D) are incorrect because “hard-hearted” and “unfeeling” mean “pitiless” or “cruel,” and we have no reason to think Ishmael’s boots have been unkind.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (D) is correct because “the sounds of tinkling glasses within” is one of the things that makes Ishmael think the inn is “Too expensive and jolly” (line 26). This suggests that people are enjoying drinks out of these “tinking glasses,” which make noise as they touch each other or the place servings, and Ishmael doesn’t believe he can afford such nice things. (A) is incorrect because “tinkling glass” is too gentle a sound to imply a bar fight. (B) is incorrect for much the same reason (A) is incorrect: the sound does not imply a dangerously rocking building. (C) is incorrect because, while toasting requires glasses to be struck together lightly, the narrator does not actually step inside the Sword-Fish Inn so this is inaccurate. (E) is incorrect because, although musical bells can also make a “tinkling” sound, a room full of drinking glasses does not create a tune so much as a high-pitched noise.

8.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (A) is the correct answer because, although the narrator is tempted to go inside, he is trying to remind and convince himself that the Sword-Fish Inn is too expensive. In this context, “don’t you hear?” means something like “Come on, I’ve told you more than once already!” (B) is incorrect because the narrator is addressing himself in an internal monologue, as we can tell from “go on, Ishmael, said I at last” (line 29); he is not addressing the reader. (C) and (D) are incorrect because nothing before or after this line suggests that anyone else is outside the inn with Ishmael; he is addressing himself and mentioning his own patched boots. (E) is incorrect because Ishmael has been enjoying the sound of the revelers and is tearing himself away from them “at last” (line 29); it would be strange for him to complain about them.

9.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the quoted lines. (B) is correct because the narrator’s “patched boots” are evidence of how poor he is, and someone so poor can only afford “the cheapest, if not the cheeriest inns” (line 33). (A) is incorrect because the narrator says his boots are “stopping the way” (line 31), blocking the path to the Sword-Fish Inn. It’s a harsh way of saying, indirectly, that he should get out of the way because he doesn’t belong there. (C) is incorrect because, although the narrator does still have to walk “waterward” (line 32), we don’t know how far that is. (D) is incorrect because there is nothing to indicate this is because his footwear is oversized; it’s much more likely that the narrator is speaking figuratively, referring to his “patched boots” as a way of indirectly addressing himself as someone who is too shabby to stay at such a nice inn. (E) is incorrect because we only hear that stepping on the “flinty projections” is “rather weary” for the narrator, since his soles are “in a most miserable plight;” this does not necessarily mean that the ice cuts all the way through the soles. More importantly, this sentence goes on to say that his boots are “stopping the way” to the inn, which has nothing to do with the ice.

10.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to summarize the sequence of events that occur in the excerpt of the play. (B) is correct because it is revealed in the beginning of the excerpt that Rich is an unwelcome visitor and troubling guest. He behaves anxiously and hostilely and says, “I sense I am not welcome here” (lines 13-14). More reveals that Rich’s behavior has made him begin to suspect him. As soon as Rich exits, More’s family and household implore More to arrest Rich because he is dangerous and a bad man. More observes that there’s no law against being “bad,” which prompts a discussion about the nature of the law and justice. (A) is incorrect because the family is not being churlish or mean-spirited; they suspect Rich is a danger to the family. The family discusses law and justice, but there is no civil lawsuit. (C) is incorrect because Rich, the troubling guest, arrives at the beginning of the scene that prompts the family’s discussion of law and justice. God and the Devil are brought up as part of the discussion about law, but the family is not having a religious argument. (D) is incorrect because there is no aging lawyer expressing fear of observation in this excerpt from the play; More is not afraid to be observed. (E) is incorrect because More, the father, does not claim to be a higher authority than God, quite the opposite: “Then God can arrest him” (line 56). Some of More’s family members are asking him to arrest Rich, but More disagrees. The family’s opinions are divided, but they are all loyal to More.

11.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to make inferences about the points of view of characters in the passage. (A) is correct because Roper believes that More should arrest Rich to enforce “God’s law,” as indicated in line 55, while More believes that he cannot arrest Rich if he hasn’t broken one of England’s laws, and that only God can enforce moral and religious rules, as indicated in lines 54, 56, and 62-67. (B) is incorrect because it is More, not Roper, who believes in adhering strictly to the law. Roper says he would “cut down every law in England” (line 76) to do what he thinks is right. (C) is incorrect because Rich doesn’t get away because More doesn’t realize he’s a bad man; More refuses to arrest Rich because there’s no law against being bad, as indicated by the exchange in lines 53-55. (D) is incorrect because neither person exactly suggests changing the laws; More wants to preserve them, as he expresses in lines 77-86, and Roper expresses a willingness to “cut down” the law in line 76. (E) is incorrect because it is Roper, not More, who says that Rich is a spy in line 51.

12.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to consider how the author reveals aspects of a character. (E) is correct because when Rich mentions that Cromwell is asking questions, “(More is unmoved)” (line 22). When Rich accuses Matthew of being one of Cromwell’s sources, More responds, “Of course; that’s one of my servants.” More is calm and indifferent because he is already aware of this information. When Rich mentions that Chapuys is collecting information, More responds calmly, “that’s one of his functions” (lines 30-31). (A) is incorrect because More does not react with fear and concern; on the contrary, More is untroubled and shows a lack of concern. (B) is incorrect because More does not react with surprise and alarm or shock and anxiety. In fact, he is quite calm and unmoved. (C) is incorrect because More does not react with rage and indignation or with fury and anger. (D) is incorrect because More does not react with denial and disbelief. He does not disagree with Rich’s claims and seems to be already aware of them.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (D) is correct because More refuses to employ Rich because he cannot trust him, as indicated in lines 44-45. He also doesn’t deny that he’s a bad man, when Margaret says so in line 53, but he doesn’t seem worried about it—so he doesn’t think of Rich as more than a “nuisance.” (A) is incorrect because More finds Rich to be untrustworthy, which implies that he would not be a useful informant. (B) is incorrect because More does not seem to be threatened by Rich, as shown in lines 33-35. When Rich is afraid that he is viewed as an enemy, More steadies him; it is Rich that is afraid, not More. (C) is incorrect because More refuses to employee Rich multiple times. (E) is incorrect because there is no evidence that More and Rich are friends, and the fact that Rich is asking More for employment suggests that they are not peers.

14.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to make inferences about the points of view of several characters in the passage. I is true because only Alice and Margaret support Roper’s call to arrest Rich. Alice believes Rich is dangerous and exclaims “Arrest him!” (line 52). II is true because Margaret implicitly supports the arrest by agreeing with Alice and claiming, “Father, that man’s bad” (line 53). III is false because More disagrees with Roper and claims there is no law against being bad. He does not believe there is legal reason to arrest Rich: “I know what’s legal not what’s right” (lines 58-59). Thus, (B) is correct.

15.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (C) is correct because “sophistry” is a style of argument that is clever but misleading. Roper believes that More is playing on words instead of arguing seriously when More says that, if Rich has violated God’s law, “God can arrest him” (line 56). (A), (B), and (E) are incorrect because “sophistication” can refer to elegance, good taste, or a refinement of an existing thing—all drawing on a positive sense of “clever”—but Roper is using a negative sense of the word: he is suggesting that More’s argument is misleadingly clever. (D) is incorrect because, although a lifestyle could be sophisticated, “sophistication” itself does not mean “lifestyle.”

16.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to identify a literary device by name. (D) is correct because the quoted phrase figuratively describes right and wrong as “currents and eddies,” features of the ocean that must be “navigated” by sailors. More is making a direct comparison without using “like” or “as” to imply that he isn’t as confident in his ability to discern right and wrong as he is in his ability to apply the law. (A) is incorrect because More does not use “like” or “as” to make the comparison; a simile would be something like “right and wrong are like currents and eddies: I can’t navigate them.” (B) is incorrect because personification describes non-human things as if they were human, but “currents and eddies” describes right and wrong as if they were water. (C) is incorrect because pathos refers either to the sadness of a scene or to a speaker’s attempt to convince an audience by appealing to its emotions. More might be getting a little emotional when he says this, but he’s getting angry—not sad—and he’s not appealing to Roper’s feelings to try to persuade him. (E) is incorrect because an ad hominem argument is an attack on another person’s character intended to make others doubt his arguments. More is expressing the humble idea that he isn’t competent to apply God’s law, not simply attacking Roper.

17.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (B) is correct because, in the quoted line, More uses metaphorical language to illustrate that he is quite adept at navigating the complexities of the law. He compares the complexity of the law to “thickets,” which are dense group of bushes or trees, and describes himself as a forester, someone with great knowledge of trees and the forest. (A) is incorrect because More compares himself to a “forester,” one who lives in a forest or whose job is to care for a forest, and who would therefore be quite knowledgeable and not easily lost. (C) is incorrect because we have no reason to believe that foresters are weary or tired of forests; further, when More says “thank God” in line 67, it implies that he’s glad to be like a forester. (D) is incorrect because there’s nothing especially hereditary about being a “forester.” Some people may become foresters because they are descended from foresters, but that could be true of any profession. (E) may be tempting if you confused “forester” with “logger.” Loggers chop down trees, so that metaphor would suggest cutting down and thus simplifying laws—but foresters live in or tend to forests.

18.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The question requires you to interpret figurative language. (C) is correct because More is continuing a comparison between laws and a forest, and his question to Roper is, if he cuts down all the laws, could he “stand upright in the winds that would blow then?” (line 84). That implies that the “wind” would be a consequence of removing the laws. For his own answer, More says that he’d give the Devil benefit of law (by not cutting down the laws) for his own “safety’s sake” (line 86). That implies that the winds are dangerous. (A) is incorrect because nothing in More’s metaphor specifically suggests a fear of foreign invasion. (B) is incorrect because More is referring to man’s law and the consequences that occur when man’s law is removed—not to a punishment from God. (D) incorrectly interprets More’s metaphor for cutting down laws as literally being about cutting down trees. (E) is incorrect because More’s own response to the rhetorical question is to suggest that he’d leave the law in place for his “own safety’s sake” (line 86). More is implying that cutting down the law would threaten both or either of them, not threatening that he will personally do harm to Roper.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (C) is correct because More means that he would give even the Devil the benefit of the law to protect his own rights, since anyone could be harmed if the law is undermined or cut down. (A) is incorrect; More is concerned how the absence of law would affect his safety, not retribution from the Devil. (B) is incorrect because More’s argument is not that he can make the Devil (or bad people) follow the law; it’s that the laws can protect him if those bad people come after him. (D) is incorrect because More never says that he makes all legal decisions out of self-interest. Also, his argument here, even though it’s for his “own safety’s sake,” is about maintaining universal principles, not just ones that benefit him. (E) is incorrect because More is not comparing the laws of humans and divine laws with this statement. In an earlier metaphor, More expresses the idea that he’s more competent to navigate human law than right and wrong, but that’s a statement about his own abilities—not the reliability of the law.

20.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to identify the central idea of the poem. (C) is correct because the speaker first describes the way that suns extinguish themselves and return to “the darkness whence they came” (line 7), which is “Nirvanic peace” (line 8). The speaker then expresses that, once his “feeble sun of life burns out” (line 9), he will accept “the darkness without fear and doubt” (line 12). He thereby draws an analogy between the life and death of a star and his own life and death, and declares that he will accept the peace of death without fear. (A) is incorrect because the speaker never mentions trying to escape death. (B) is incorrect because the speaker never mentions “youthful imprudence.” (D) is incorrect because, while the speaker does draw an analogy between his own life and the life of a star, he never suggests that he will actually become a star. (E) is incorrect because the word “feverish” functions metaphorically here, not literally.

21.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (A) is correct because “brooding” can refer to the behavior of sitting on a clutch of eggs and waiting for them to hatch; since the “first sun” is compared to a fledgling bird in line 2, and Night was brooding “ere” (or “before”) he “fledged his wings,” this sense of “brooding” makes sense. (B) is incorrect because Night is described as “calm,” not menacing. (C) is incorrect because there’s no indication that Night disapproves of chaos, which here simply means the state before there was anything else. (D) is tempting because a common metaphorical sense of “brooding over something” is “thinking dark thoughts about something.” However, the characterization of Night as a mother fits the literal meaning of “brooding” rather than this metaphorical meaning. (E) is incorrect because Night is “calm” rather than “sulking over its utter isolation.”

22.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze the purpose of the quoted lines. (C) is correct because “feeble” appears in the phrase “my feeble sun of life.” If the sun that fuels the speaker’s life is “feeble,” then the speaker’s life itself is fragile or frail. (A) is incorrect because the speaker doesn’t specifically discuss his accomplishments or compare them with the accomplishments of others; he compares himself with stars, which are much more vast and long-lived than people, but which don’t have any accomplishments. (B) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t cast the speaker’s attitude as apathetic; he is accepting his death because he recognizes that it is part of the cycle of being, not because he doesn’t care whether he lives or dies. (D) is incorrect because the subject of this stanza is the speaker’s own death, not the suns of the first stanza. (E) is incorrect because we feel “pity” for things that are sad, but the speaker doesn’t present his death as a sad thing; he plans to welcome it confidently, “without fear or doubt.”

23.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze the structure of the poem. (C) is correct because the first stanza discusses the collapse of stars, and the second stanza narrows the focus to the speaker’s death. (A) is incorrect because the extended metaphor of death as a maternal night spans both stanzas. (B) is incorrect because the second stanza doesn’t “explain” the phenomenon of death so much as it states the speaker’s personal attitude towards it. (D) is incorrect because the “sun” in the second stanza is not a literal sun; it stands metaphorically for the speaker’s life. (E) is incorrect because the poem never explicitly mentions the pursuit of immortality.

24.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze the effect of specific lines. (A) is correct because the phrases “heavy-lidded” and “weary” are associated with sleep, and the image of the speaker “softly creeping” into the “quiet bosom of the Night” suggests the peace and comfort of going quietly to sleep. (B) is incorrect because the speaker does not interrogate what happens at night in general; “night” functions here as part of the poem’s extended metaphor for death. (C) is incorrect because to “trivialize” is to treat something serious with a surprising lack of seriousness. Here, the speaker’s dramatic and dignified language gives the subject appropriate seriousness. (D) is incorrect because nothing about these lines suggests that the speaker is deceiving us or has a distorted perception of reality. (E) is incorrect because the speaker’s identity is never revealed.

25.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to interpret the effect of imagery in the poem. (C) is correct because the phrases “wings of flame,” “whirling,” and “fiery courses” all describe the suns’ as lively or “spirited;” however, these suns will eventually “decay” and return to “haven of darkness,” which means they are “mortal.” (A) is incorrect because the phrases quoted previously do not apply to “meek” objects. (B) and (E) are incorrect because the grand language used to describe the suns doesn’t fit with “insignificant,” “insecure,” or “inhibited” objects. (D) is incorrect because the suns aren’t described as having tasks or responsibilities, and the words “capable” and “reckless” tend to describe our ability to handle responsibilities and tasks.

26.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to make inferences about the most likely purpose of a poem. (B) is correct because the poem emphasizes that death is an inevitable process and compares it to sleep or the return to a maternal figure. These are efforts to ease fear. (A) is incorrect because the maternal imagery here is metaphorical, not literal. (C) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t describe an afterlife—only death itself. (D) is incorrect because the suns in the poem are simply used to illustrate the speaker’s attitude towards death. (E) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t have any suggestions for how one should live.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (B) is correct because suns genuinely do move in space, as all celestial bodies do, but the expression “run its course” is also a fairly common expression which works euphemistically to suggest that something has either ended or, in this case, died. (A) is incorrect because “run their fiery courses” refers to the suns, not Night. (C) is incorrect because thoughts and attitudes are never ascribed to the suns. (D) is incorrect because the expression isn’t normally used to encourage, and the context doesn’t offer support for that interpretation. (E) is incorrect because a riddle is usually paradoxical or intentionally mysterious and is often phrased as a question, while this phrase simply describes the action of the suns.

28.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (E) is correct because lines 13-14 describe the idler passing his days “content, without ambitions.” Line 15 continues, saying his life goes on “until the sands run down into the glass,” at which point the idler “smiles… and dies.” This indicates that the sands running into the glass represent the passing of his life. The phrase also evokes the common image of an hourglass, which tells the passage of time. (A) is incorrect because, while deserts are generally full of sand, they are not contained in glass. (B) is incorrect because the lines do not describe the perceptions of the idler; they describe the idler’s life through figurative language. (C) is incorrect because the idler is the one who is considered unproductive by his peers, not the other way around. (D) is incorrect because the lines do not describe the idler working at all, but merely dreaming and passing his life.

29.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to make an inference about the perspective and attitudes of the speaker of the poem. (A) is correct because, while the speaker describes behavior that some readers might find objectionable, disappointing, or wasteful, she poses a question in the final two lines that admonishes readers to consider whether they are any better off in the end for not having been an idler. That suggests an attitude that we should refrain from judging the idler for the way he lives his life. (B) is incorrect because the speaker never expresses contempt for the idler. (C) is incorrect because “amorous” implies romantic attraction, which the speaker never expresses. (D) might be tempting because the speaker could be described as “disinterested,” in the sense that she expresses no bias for or against the idler’s choices, but “uninterested” implies a total lack of care. The speaker describes the full arc of the idler’s life and offers a defense against potentially judgmental readers, so she is “interested” in the idler. (E) is incorrect because it connotes a worshipful attitude. The speaker doesn’t seem to dislike the idler, but there’s no indication that she is worshipful towards the idler.

30.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of several lines in the poem. (D) is correct because to realize one’s potential is to achieve all that one can, but by living in idleness the idler abstains from achievement. (A), (C), and (E) are incorrect because line 12 indicates that his mission is “to be a happy idler, to lounge and sun”—in other words, to find pleasure by resting in the sunshine. (B) is incorrect because line 13 indicates that his mission also includes “dreaming” while he passes “his long-drawn days away.”

31.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (B) is correct because the phrase “When you, like him” creates a sense of equivalence between the idler and the reader; to be “hurled” “into infinitude” is to die. This implies that, no matter whether we live lives of respectable activity or idleness, we must all face death. (A) incorrectly draws the wrong evidence from the second-last line’s “desperate deal”; the final line doesn’t make any claims about dying people being reckless. (C) and (D) are incorrect because the word “infinitude” stands in as a euphemism for death; it doesn’t describe the journey before death or the vastness of the universe. (E) is incorrect because, while “hurled” is intended to convey our lack of control, it doesn’t imply that we will literally be violently hurled into death.

32.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (C) is correct because the speaker assumes the reader will feel “pity” for the idler, who wasted his life and accomplished nothing, and prompts the reader to consider whether the scramble to achieve something in life other than idleness and comfort really means anything in the end—in other words, to reflect on why they should value scrambling to achieve things rather than lazing through life as a happy idler. (A) is incorrect because the speaker assumes the reader will believe the idler has waster his life, but she challenges that belief. (B) is incorrect because the final stanza does not thank or praise the reader for anything. (D) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t suggest that ambitions are deadly, as in literally causing death—rather, the speaker suggests that such ambitions cannot halt death. (E) is incorrect because the poem challenges those who would criticize the slothful idler.

33.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to consider how the author reveals aspects of a character through description. (B) is correct because a “mothling” is a tiny and insignificant insect. (A) is incorrect because the context does not support this interpretation; the idler quietly lazes through life in an unobtrusive way. (C) is incorrect because, while the metaphor of a “moth to a flame” is often used to represent a compulsion, the word “driven” specifically connotes a high level of motivation that would be incongruous with the rest of the description of the idler. (D) is incorrect because “capricious” means unpredictable; that trait isn’t generally associated with moths and doesn’t aptly describe the idler. (E) is incorrect because “blind” is not a term usually associated with moths, either.

34.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to consider how the author reveals aspects of a character through description. (B) is correct because the phrase “painful sighs” casts ambition as a frustrating condition; the idler is therefore free from its burdens. (A) is incorrect because the phrase doesn’t indicate anything about the idler’s attitudes towards others who do covet success. (C) is incorrect because the idler is “free from” “painful sighs,” casting his condition as a positive rather than a negative one. (D) is incorrect because the line doesn’t clearly reveal the idler’s position either way on the tension between progress and quality. (E) is incorrect because to desire success is to be ambitious; the idler is without ambition, so he’s indifferent to success.

35.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (A) is correct because the kings are only mentioned by way of introduction to the town of Iper; it was formerly a possession of the King of Spain, and later became a territory of the King of France. (B) is incorrect because the “very beautiful Lady” is the spouse of Count Henrick de Vallary. (C) is incorrect because “the Count” refers once again to Henrick de Vallary. (D) is incorrect because Isabella is their daughter. (E) is incorrect because the Lady Abbess is Henrick’s sister.

36.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (B) is correct because, immediately after the passage refers to the Count’s grief, it says that he “resolv’d....to take upon him Holy Orders” (lines 8-12) and that Isabella “should also become a Nun” (line 15). (A) is incorrect because the count took half of his wealth to the Jesuits, “and the other half, he gave with Isabella” (lines 19-20) when she went to another monastery, along with instructions to give her some of the revenue if she decided to leave the monastery at the age of 13. (C) is incorrect because the Lady Abbess does not “adopt” Isabella in the sense of becoming her new legal parent; she merely looks after her upbringing at the monastery. (D) is incorrect because the Countess does not die because of the Count’s grief; the Count feels grief because the Countess dies. (E) is incorrect because the passage does not explain how Iper became a possession of the King of France.

37.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to determine the sense of a word in the passage. (A) is correct because, after suffering a great personal loss, Henrick decides not to look for any more happiness in “this transitory World.” In other words, having experienced a loss in the “transitory” world, he stops trying to find happiness in it; the word “fleeting” is the best fit because it refers to things which pass quickly, and in context it expresses the idea of a world where nothing is permanent. That explains why Henrick would want to look for his happiness elsewhere after losing someone. (B) is incorrect; “tempting” is not one of the definitions of the word “transitory.” (C) is incorrect because, although “physical” things sometimes don’t last a long time, that quality isn’t inherent to the definition of the word; some physical things, like matter itself, last a long time. (D) is incorrect because “sullied” means that something has been stained or smirched; that idea is not within the range of meanings expressed by “transitory.” (E) is incorrect because “treacherous” means deceptive or tricky; “transitory” things are not necessarily “treacherous.”

38.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to analyze an argument in the passage. I is supported by the text: Henrick states that if Isabella “had not a mind to take orders”—in other words, did not wish to become a nun—then she should be allowed to leave at 13. II, “Her intellect is found to be deficient,” might be tempting if you think “mind” in the quotation above refers to mental powers. However, “mind” means something like “will” or “intention,” not “intellect.” III might be tempting because of the phrase “[if] the Lady Abbess found her Inclination averse to a Monastick Life.” However, the “her” in that phrase refers to Isabella, not the Abbess, so this line is still talking about Isabella’s preferences. Therefore, (A) is correct and the other answers are incorrect.

39.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (D) is correct because the second paragraph reveals that the Lady Abbess wants to keep Isabella at the monastery partly because she is “very loth to part with [Isabella’s] considerable Fortune, which [the Abbess] must resign, if [Isabella] returned into the World.” This suggests that Henrick was naive in assuming that his sister had enough “Integrity and Justice” to make an impartial judgment about Isabella’s future. (A) is incorrect because, despite their family ties, the Lady Abbess covets Isabella’s fortune. (B) is incorrect because the narrator never makes any statements about the character of the Order of St. Augustine as a whole; it’s true that the other nuns at this monastery help the Abbess, but we don’t know what other monasteries of the same order would have done. (C) is incorrect because the Lady Abbess is motivated by personal gain, rather than the fear that Isabella will misbehave. (E) is incorrect because we never learn what Isabella’s views on childrearing are.

40.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to work out the roles of specific words in a complex sentence structure. (C) is correct because the pronoun refers to the Abbess’ “Fair Niece,” Isabella. The phrase in question describes what might happen if someone “returned into the World,” and in the previous phrase it is stated that this same “she” would “resign” a fortune. In context, this can only refer to Isabella. (A) is incorrect because the “very beautiful lady” described in these lines is Isabella’s mother. (B) is incorrect because the Lady Abbess is the one thinking about what would happen if Isabella returned into the world, not the one who might actually return. (D) is incorrect because “the fair sisterhood” refers to the community of nuns; in general, such a group would be referred to using either the pronoun “it” or the pronoun “they.” (E) is incorrect because the “young Ladies,” who are “uninclos’d,” are women outside of the monastery; as a group, they once again take a plural pronoun.

41.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. (E) is correct because the narrator states that Isabella “thought there was no joy out of a Nunnery,” or, in other words, that she couldn’t imagine being happy living any other way of life. Therefore, she would have stayed regardless of her aunt’s efforts. (A) is incorrect because the narrator doesn’t indicate whom Isabella pays the most attention to. (B) is incorrect because the “fortune” described in this paragraph is Isabella’s, not the monastery’s. (C) and (D) are incorrect because the narrator explicitly states that the Lady Abbess’s actions were “needless” rather than the cause of Isabella’s devotion.

42.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to identify the best description of a character in the passage. (A) is correct because the narrator never claims that Isabella has “foresight,” or a keen ability to predict and anticipate. (B) is incorrect because Isabella is called the “fair Niece,” “fair” here meaning beautiful. (C) is incorrect because Isabella is said to possess “innate Steadfastness, and Calm,” words which together indicate that she possesses “temperance.” (D) is incorrect because Isabella is ignorant of “The World’s Vanities,” meaning that she is innocent. (E) is incorrect because we know that Isabella received a fortune from her father.

43.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to identify the genre of the passage. (A) is correct because the passage reveals a stream of Mr. Bloom’s rambling inner thoughts that blends with the action and setting of the story; that form of writing is conventionally described as “stream-of-consciousness.” (B) and (D) are incorrect because the passage is written in a third-person voice, but “autobiographical” implies that the main character is also the person telling the story, and “first-person narrative” explicitly indicates a first-person voice. (C) is incorrect because a parable is a simple story told to illustrate a moral lesson, and there’s no clear lesson in this passage. (E) is incorrect because the passage does not name or suggest any political figures or ideas, and doesn’t use ridicule, humor, or irony to make any political point.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to analyze a portion of the passage and identify its implications. I cannot be inferred from the passage because the passage offers no information about Mr. Bloom’s childhood. II can be inferred from the passage because lines 1-6 describe the delight he takes in organ meat. III cannot be inferred from the passage because the passage never reveals Mr. Bloom’s ethical attitudes. Thus, (B) is correct.

45.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a sentence in the passage. (B) is correct because “gelid” means “very cold.” “Gelid” is used to describe “light and air;” it can literally describe air, which can feel “very cold,” but it must figuratively describe light. In a technical sense, “cool” light is more blue than red—but figuratively, we associate brightness with burning, and darkness with cold, so “gelid light” is most likely “dim.” A “gentle summer morning” describes mild weather outdoors. (A) is incorrect because “gelid light” means the light in the kitchen is cold, not that it comes from an oil lamp, which is never mentioned. As well, a “blazing sun” would not make for “gentle” weather. (C) may be tempting because “gelid” sounds like “gelatin,” but this passage never mentions the substance “gelatin.” As well, the kitchen cannot be both “gelid” and hot. (D) is incorrect because the sentence doesn’t make any claims either way about windows, although Mr. Bloom is probably looking out of one when he notices the “gentle summer morning” outside. (E) is incorrect because neither the smell of the kitchen nor the outdoors is ever mentioned.

46.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (C) is correct because the word “peckish” is synonymous with “hungry” and fits into the context of the paragraph in which it appears, and it especially connotes the feeling of being a little hungry. Since Mr. Bloom is just “a bit peckish,” “hungry” fits the context. (A) and (E) are incorrect because “famished” and “voracious” have much stronger connotations than “peckish.” They suggest extreme hunger, which doesn’t fit in context. (B) is incorrect because, while “picky” can be associated with food, it doesn’t describe the state of desiring food. (D) is incorrect because to be “gluttonous” is to suffer from the vice of eating too much; people might feel “gluttonous” if they had just eaten too much and were feeling guilty about it, but that’s not the feeling of wanting food.

47.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to make inferences about the point of view of a character in the passage. (E) is correct because, while Mr. Bloom describes his cat as “vindictive” and “cruel” in line 33, he simply understands that as her nature—and he tries to imagine her perspective as a cat, which is very different from the perspective of a human. He also thinks very well of her. (A) is incorrect because, although Mr. Bloom feeds the cat (and most likely houses it too), this treatment is not noted as extending to animals in general, and his thoughts about the cat never change to consider animals in general. (B) is incorrect because, while Mr. Bloom is shown to have positive feelings about eating organ meat, that fact isn’t revealed by his thoughts about the cat. (C) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom does not reflect on nature in general. He just tries to imagine his cat’s perspective on the world. (D) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom’s thoughts actually reveal a modest level of insight into the natural world, at least insofar as cats are concerned; they don’t suggest ignorance.

48.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to consider the relationships between characters in the passage. (A) is correct because, even though Mr. Bloom mocks the cat for its fear of chickens, his affectionate treatment of it throughout the passage shows that he loves his pet. He gets down on his hands and knees to meet the cat’s eye-level, admires its shiny coat, and even states that cats “understand what we say better than we understand them” (lines 31-32 (B) and (E) are incorrect because, as argued above, Mr. Bloom is fond of his cat and doesn’t “revile” it (think it is despicable) or want to replace it. (C) is incorrect because this is exactly the opposite of what Mr. Bloom expresses about his cat in this sentence, which is that his cat is the stupidest cat he’s ever seen. (D) is incorrect because it corresponds to other parts of the passage, not to the quotation this question asks about. In this line, Mr. Bloom only calls the cat “stupid.” He does say it is “Vindictive” and “Cruel” in the previous paragraph, but “stupid” does not mean the same thing as either of these.

49.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to determine the sense of a word in the passage. Both “plaintively” and “mournfully” mean to do something in a sad way. (B) and (E) are incorrect because “nostalgically” and “wistfully” both suggest thinking sadly about past happiness. The cat, however, is not thinking sadly about past milk: it is asking for milk now. (C) and (D) are incorrect because “cheerfully” and “gleefully” mean “happily,” which is the opposite of “plaintively.”

50.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a portion of the passage. (D) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom speculates in line 51 that “they shine in the dark, perhaps, the tips.” In other words, they shed light to help the cat see mice. The only other reason Mr. Bloom imagines is that they’re “kind of feelers” in the dark. Because those are the only two reasons Mr. Bloom speculates about, and none of the other choices address those reasons, (A), (B), (C), and (E) are incorrect.

51.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to interpret the literal meaning of a sentence in the passage. (C) is correct because immediately after considering having ham and eggs for breakfast, Mr. Bloom thinks “No good eggs with this drouth.” In other words, because the weather has been dry, there are no good eggs at the market (chickens lay fewer eggs when they’re hot or dehydrated). (A) may be tempting because Mr. Bloom loves organ meat, but he doesn’t think of that around the same time he thinks of ham and eggs. (B) is incorrect because the passage never suggests Mr. Bloom is thirsty; the line “want pure fresh water” refers to the chickens’ need for water to lay good eggs. (D) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom appeals directly to the weather when thinking about why not to have ham and eggs; the fact that it’s Thursday means it’s not a good day for mutton kidney. (E) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom has moved onto other thoughts than ham and eggs by the time the kettle boils.

52.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to consider the relationships between characters in the passage. (A) is correct because, as Mr. Bloom makes breakfast for his wife, he frequently pauses to think about what she prefers. He is making “Thin bread and butter,” which is something he knows “she likes in the morning” (lines 63-64), and keeps in mind that “She didn’t like her plate full” (line 14). He also considers whether she “might like something tasty” for a change (line 62-63). (B) is incorrect because the passage does not tell us how Mr. Bloom feels about his wife’s sleeping habits. (C) is incorrect because nothing in the passage suggests that Mr. Bloom believes his wife has unhealthy tastes or wants to give her anything other than what she will enjoy. (D) is not correct because, even though other parts of the passage discuss Mr. Bloom’s love of eating kidneys, these lines are only concerned with bread and butter, and no part of the passage tells us whether his wife is willing to prepare kidneys for him. (E) is incorrect because Mr. Bloom prepares a breakfast that he knows matches his wife’s preferences, which suggests respect for her eating habits rather than contempt.

53.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to identify the central themes of the poem. (C) is correct because the bulk of the poem is concerned with the passage of “Time” (line 1), which the speaker feels is flying by in “hasting days.” In the last three lines of the poem, the speaker discusses the passage of time in light of his faith that, whatever direction his life is heading in, it is in accordance with “the will of Heav’n”. (A) is incorrect because community is not discussed in the poem. (B) is incorrect because the speaker does not present an opposition between himself as an individual and any group he might be assimilated into. (D) is incorrect because the poem focuses on the speaker’s life, not his afterlife. (E) is incorrect because themes of self-reliance and independence do not appear in the poem at all.

54.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to identify the form of the poem. (B) is correct because this poem has fourteen lines that follow a regular rhyme scheme and meter; thus, it’s a sonnet. If you eliminated this choice, it may have been because the rhyme scheme isn’t the same as the one used in the Shakespearean sonnet, the most common example in most classrooms, but sonnets can have many rhyme schemes. (A), “an extended metaphor,” is incorrect because an extended metaphor takes a single metaphor (“time is money,” for instance) and sustains that metaphor for many lines. This poem contains many metaphors, but no central metaphor extends across the poem. (C), “an allegory,” is incorrect. An allegory is a story whose characters stand in for abstract concepts. (D), “an ode,” is incorrect. An ode is a poem addressed to a subject (“O Autumn,” for example) with an irregular rhyme scheme. (E), “an elegy,” is incorrect. An elegy is a serious poem, usually mourning the death or end of someone or something.

55.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question requires you to identify the tone of the passage. (C) is correct because to be “wistful” is to long for something; the speaker wishes for age, maturity, and a sense of purpose, but so far he hasn’t achieved these. (A), “arrogant,” is incorrect because the speaker does not make self-important or condescending claims. (B), “defiant,” is incorrect because the speaker is not standing up to any obstacle or opponent in this poem. (D), “optimistic,” is incorrect because the speaker recognizes that the things he hopes for may take a long time, or be “mean” or “less,” and accepts that this is all part of a divine plan; his attitude is closer to equanimity than optimism. (E), “apathetic,” is incorrect because this speaker is not emotionally distant or indifferent towards his subject matter.

56.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to identify specific, named literary devices in the passage. (B) is correct because lines 1 and 2 describe “Time,” an abstract concept, as a person, a “subtle thief” who has “stol’n” the speaker’s youth. (A), “apostrophe,” is incorrect because the speaker is not talking directly to Time but to someone else about time. (C), “hyperbole,” is incorrect because these lines do not contain an exaggeration. (D), “simile,” is incorrect because the speaker does not compare Time to anything using “like” or “as”. He states directly that Time is a thief, not that time is “like” a thief. (E), “anaphora,” is incorrect because the speaker does not begin multiple phrases in these lines with the same word or words.

57.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (D) is correct because the speaker says that, “soon or slow” (line 9), his life will move in the direction that “the will of Heav’n” (line 12) is leading him in. He then says that “All is...As ever in my great Task-Master’s eye” (13-14). In other words, “everything is, just as it always is, under the gaze of my great taskmaster.” The capitalization of “Task-Master” following the mention of “the will of Heav’n” strongly suggests that the being always watching over the speaker is God. (A), (B), (C), and (E) are unsupported by the passage.

58.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to interpret figurative language. (A) is correct because the word “career” functions here in an older sense meaning “fast movement”; it’s etymologically related to the word “careen.” Even if you don’t know this older meaning, you can identify it in context because it follows “My hasting days fly on,” which strongly suggests quick motion. Despite this rapid movement of time, the speaker has failed to see any “bud or blossom” in his “late spring.” He is, in short, a late bloomer (B), (C), and (E) all incorrectly read “career” in its more common modern sense of “job” or “occupation.” (D) is unsupported by any of the language in the excerpt.

59.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (E) is correct because lines 5-6 read “Perhaps my semblance might deceive the truth / That I to manhood am arriv’d so near”. This can be paraphrased as “Maybe my appearance might hide the fact that I have come so close to adulthood.” In other words, the speaker wonders whether his youthful appearance might fool people into thinking he is younger than he is. (A), “pretense,” and (C), “guise,” are incorrect because nothing suggests the speaker is deliberately pretending to be younger than he is. (B), “air,” would describe the way the speaker behaves rather than the way he looks physically. However, because the speaker contrasts his “semblance” with his “inward ripeness,” his “semblance” probably describes his outward appearance. (D), “similarity,” is a possible meaning of the word “resemblance,” but not of the word “semblance.”

60.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to determine which one of several conventional senses of a word is correct in the specific context of the passage. (A) is correct because the term “ripeness” appears in context as “inward ripeness,” which is compared with the speaker’s youthful outer “semblance.” He means that, if he looks young on the outside, he’s even more young and immature on the inside. (B), “sweetness,” is incorrect because it takes the word too literally; since the speaker is discussing the process of growing up, it makes the most sense for “ripeness” to refer metaphorically to maturity. (C) is also too literal-minded; further, ripe fruits and flowers tend to be sweet rather than sour. (D) is close, but also incorrect; being ready for something might be one aspect of maturity, but the poem doesn’t discuss anything specific the speaker might or might not be ready for. (E) is incorrect because the speaker is discussing something that comes with time, and “beauty” is more likely to be something that fades with time.

61.

The Correct Answer is (E) — This question requires you to identify specific, named literary devices in the passage. ((E) is correct because a metaphor directly compares something abstract or unfamiliar to something concrete or familiar to help the reader understand the abstract thing. Line 13 might seem metaphorical if you interpret “grace” as being about physical movement and having a metaphorical sense in this line, but “grace” can refer to any kind of talent or blessing—in this case, the talent to use time well. (A) is incorrect: “thief” is a metaphor comparing time taking away youth to thieves taking away belongings. (B) is incorrect: Time’s “wing” is a metaphor comparing Time’s swiftness to a bird’s. (C) is incorrect: “late spring,” “bud,” and “blossom” are metaphors comparing the speaker’s youth and his accomplishments to a season and its flowers. (D) is incorrect: “ripeness” is a metaphor comparing the speaker’s maturity to the development of a fruit.