1.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (D) is correct because the second clause explains the first clause, and a colon is therefore an acceptable way of joining these clauses. (A) is incorrect because it omits the necessary punctuation and creates a run-on sentence. (B) is incorrect because it introduces an unnecessary comma after the word "each". The use of the comma in (C) may seem correct, but there is no coordinating conjunction joining the independent clauses. A comma is consequently inadequate.

2.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consider the claim and whether each option offers direct support for that claim. (B) is correct because the idea that professors love the subjects they teach logically supports the claim that they feel lucky to be in the career. (A) relates to the backgrounds of professors, which is not directly related to the claim. (C) asserts that teaching can be difficult, but does not support the claim. While (D) may be true, it also does not support the claim

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (A) is the correct answer to this question about sentence boundaries. It punctuates the two independent clauses as separate sentences; the other choices fail to link the clauses correctly. (B) is incorrect because it tries to join the clauses using a comma, an adverb, and another comma. Keep in mind that conjunctive adverbs do not play the same role as conjunctions in a sentence. For this to be correct, the first comma would need to be replaced with a semicolon. (C) creates a comma splice by trying to join the clauses with a comma alone, and (D) makes the same error as (B).

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the word that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (C) is the correct answer to this question, which asks for the word that means something related to languages—most likely proficiency with languages. The correct answer, "fluent," means proficient and comfortable with a language. The other answer options come close, but ultimately have different meanings. (A) "coherent," means able to be understood in general, rather than in a particular language; (B) "vivid," means energetic or expressive, but again not necessarily in language; and (D) "fluid," means liquid or free-flowing. “Fluid” can apply to speech, meaning that someone speaks freely and easily, but it’s not as appropriate in this context.

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to maintain a logical and consistent verb tense. (B) is correct because the rest of the sentence is in the present simple tense, so “does,” a simple present form of the verb “to do,” is the right fit. Answer (A) is the past perfect tense; Answer (C) is the past tense; Answer (D) is the present conditional tense.

6.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to maintain a sentence structure that is parallel with that already used. (B) is correct because it maintains the structure introduced in the first list in the sentence. Answer (A) interrupts the list with the prepositional phrase "along with." Answer (C) creates a tense shift and the repetition of the pronoun "she" is inconsistent with the single use of the noun "students". Answer (D) incorrectly combines the last two items of the list behind a single shared verb.

7.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence.(A) is correct because it introduces the idea of “office hours,” which is expanded upon in Sentence 2. (B), (C), and (D) all place the sentence after another sentence that should follow it, so they are incorrect.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (B) is correct because it expresses a complete idea without using any redundant words or expressing ideas that are already expressed in the sentence. Answer (A) is incorrect because it “online” is redundant with “through the internet”; (C) is incorrect because it repeats the word “submitted”; (D) is incorrect because it repeats “online” and adds on some synonyms for good measure.

9.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to maintain logical and consistent pronoun usage. (A) is correct because it agrees with the antecedent “Prof. Swanson,” and with the pronoun established in the first sentence (“When she’s not meeting with …”). The other choices change the voice or number of the pronoun, and do not maintain consistent pronoun usage.

10.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the word that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (D) is correct, as "performing," provides the most precise choice in the context of the passage. We can guess from the context that we need a word that means something like “doing” or “carrying out,” and although each word has a similar meaning, the first three choices are nevertheless off the mark. (A)’s "staging" can mean presenting to an audience or faking something, but not doing the sort of tasks discussed in the passage; (B)’s "achieving," in this context means completing goals, not carrying out services which may include open-ended tasks; (C)’s "discharging" in this context means fulfilling a duty, but has a more formal connotation than is called for.

11.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, consider the claim the proposed addition and consider how it relates to the surrounding sentences. (A) is correct because, without extra support, the final quotation from Prof. Swanson doesn’t make much sense. We’ve just been told that she “spends just nine hours in the classroom and another nine creating lesson plans and lectures,” so an additional accounting of how she spends the rest of her time is useful to support the claim that she “work[s] a lot more than 40 hours a week.” Although the addition does provide information about the hours the majority of professors dedicate to their responsibilities, the (B) answer is still too general. (C) and (D) focus on insignificant points; neither this paragraph nor the passage as a whole demand exacting precision, and whether or not Prof. Swanson always teaches summer classes is irrelevant to the sentence in question.

12.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the passage. Consider circling this type of question and coming back to it after answering later questions. (A) is correct because it provides evidence that supports and develops the main topic of the passage: that Sybil Ludington made as significant a contribution to the war effort as the more famous Paul Revere. (B) introduces irrelevant biographical details about Ludington, (C) is a general statement which detracts from the focus of the passage and discounts the significance of the story, and (D) introduces additional biographical details about Revere which emphasize his importance over Ludington’s—contrary to the general tone of the passage.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the transitional word or phrase that best describes the relationship between ideas in the passage. (D) correctly expresses the point that Sybil’s contribution to victory prompted Washington to visit and thank her for it. (A) and (B) imply that Washington visited the Ludingtons in spite of Sybil’s ride, but that relationship would make little sense. As the sentence indicates, Washington was a general, so it is more reasonable to assume that he would appreciate Sybil’s contribution rather than dislike it. While (C) implies that Ludington's ride was helpful in winning the battle to an extent significant enough to warrant Washington's visit, the phrase “insofar as” implies an ongoing relationship in which Washington visited the Ludingtons as long as, or to the extent that, Sybil helped in the war effort.

14.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the word or phrase that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. Although the four possible words have similar meanings, (C) "broke out," which means “developed suddenly,” fits best in the context of the passage and is the correct answer. (A)’s "set sail" most commonly implies the start of a sea voyage; (B)’s "sprouted" usually means the start of a new plant, not a war; (D)’s "blew up" implies a physical explosion or eruption.

15.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate a nonessential clause. (A) is correct because the phrase “when he joined the rebel clause” tells you more information about the year 1773, so it should be set off with a comma. (B), which does not use a comma, makes it sound as if there were many possible 1773s and the sentence were specifying which 1773 the author is talking about. (C) creates a sentence fragment (“When he joined the rebel cause.”); (D) adds unnecessary commas.

16.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to distinguish between commonly confused words and select the version that best expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. Since this sentence refers to the munitions that were stored at Danbury, a specific location, (C) "there" is correct. (A), “they’re,” is a contraction of “they are,” which does not make sense in this context. (B), “their,” is the possessive form of "they." (D) is incorrect for the same reason as (A).

17.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence. (B) is correct because it maintains the paragraph’s chronological order and ensures its cohesion. The paragraph explains how Sybil Ludington came to make her ride, and lists the events chronologically. (A) leaves sentence 2 where it is now, implying that riders were dispatched before Tryon's attack, which doesn’t make sense in the sequence of events. Sentence 4 refers to the arrival of the riders, so placing sentence 2, which is about the departure of the riders, after that sentence put the orders in the wrong chronological order. (C) and (D) both place sentence 2 somewhere after sentence 4, and therefore in the wrong chronological order.

18.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to recognize and remove unnecessary punctuation. (D) is correct because the phrase "by a powerful rainstorm" is a restrictive element—in other words, removing it would alter the meaning of the sentence. It is therefore unnecessary to set it off from the main clause with punctuation. (A), (B), and (C) all add unnecessary punctuation, whether in the form of colons or commas.

19.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to maintain a logical and consistent verb tense. (D) is correct because the tense of this verb should match the past tense “stopped,” and “shouted” is a past tense form. (A) is in the present tense; (B) is in the present progressive tense; (C) is an infinitive, which would be ungrammatical in context.

20.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, consider the relevance of the material in the question to the paragraph as a whole. The sentence in question should be deleted because it detracts from the focus of the paragraph, so the correct answer is (C). (A) is incorrect, because, even though the sentence makes sense, it interrupts the story that this paragraph is telling. (B) is incorrect. Sybil got wet because she rode quickly; she didn’t ride quickly because she got wet. Therefore, this sentence does not explain why Sybil “rode so quickly.” As well, how wet she was is unrelated to how she might have inspired the troops. (D) is incorrect, first because there is an explanation of why Sybil got so wet—she was riding through a rainstorm. Second, even with this explanation, the underlined sentence still interrupts the flow of this paragraph.

21.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to choose the pronoun that agrees with its antecedent and plays the correct grammatical role. (B), “her,” is correct because it agrees with the feminine singular antecedent, “Sybil,” and because it is possessive, modifying “role.” (A), “one’s” is only appropriate when referring to an undefined antecedent, but Sybil is a specific person. (D), “their,” is plural and therefore does not agree with “Sybil.” (C), “she,” is not possessive, so it cannot modify “role.”

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (B) is the correct answer because “likeness” and “image” are close synonyms, you only need one of those words here. (A), (C), and (D) all redundantly use both.

23.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate the underlined portion of the sentence. (B) is correct because the word “Daedalus” is an appositive phrase that provides another name for a previous noun phrase, “Icarus and his father,” so you must set it off with a comma. (A) incorrectly inserts a comma after “Icarus,” (C) incorrectly inserts a semicolon after “Icarus,” and (D) fails to place a dash after “Daedalus” (the single dash is incorrect on its own, and needs to be one of a pair).

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consider the series of events and whether each option matches and develops the series of events. (B) is correct because it provides the information necessary to understand how the two escaped, developing the series of events that led to the fall of Icarus. Although (D) explains that Daedalus devised a plan, it does not mention wings or flight. (A) and (C) provide more background information about the imprisonment of Daedelus and Icarus, but do not develop the series of events effectively by explaining how they come to fly.

25.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the word or phrase that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (D) is correct because "inspired" means to motivate, and is the most logical and precise choice. (A) "induced" means to persuade, but the context doesn’t suggest that persuasion is required, and “work” is not really an appropriate object for a word with that meaning; (B) "driven" means compelled, which is excessively strong in this context; and (C) "provoked" means to incite, but has connotations of conflict or hostility which are not appropriate in this context.

26.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to determine whether nouns should be possessive or not based on the context of the sentence, and to correctly punctuate possessive or non-possessive nouns. (C) is correct because the “spectacular fall into the sea” belongs to Icarus, the possessive form, "Icarus's," is correct. (A), “Icarus,” is not possessive; (B), “Icaruses,” is the plural of “Icarus,” not the possessive; (D) offers an option that could be used to indicate that the fall belongs to Icarus without using the possessive “Icarus’s,” and such phrases are often good style choices, but the phrase would be misplaced here and the sentence would have to be more extensively rewritten to accommodate the phrase.

27.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the version of the sentence that arranges its phrases and clauses in the clearest, most effective way. (C) is correct because it correctly uses a semicolon to join two independent clauses without introducing a conjunction that misconstrues the relationship between the two clauses. (A) redundantly repeats the word “figure,” and unnecessarily places the phrase “plowing his field” as its own clause. (B) creates an overlong sentence using a colon and the words “the following.” (D) repeats “figure” and needlessly uses both “actually” and “respectively.”

28.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the pronoun that maintains consistent pronoun usage, and fulfills the appropriate grammatical role. (B) is correct because it agrees with the antecedent, “W.H. Auden,” and maintains the usage of singular third-person pronouns established earlier. (A) is incorrect because it switches to a plural pronoun; while “they” is sometimes used as a singular, non-gender-specific pronoun, that is not necessary or correct in this context, because a male singular pronoun has already been used to refer to the same antecedent. (C) is incorrect because the pronoun “him” should be used as the object of a verb, but this pronoun is the subject of the verb “wrote.” and (D) is incorrect because this sentence refers to Auden specifically, rather than a generic "one."

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the choice that is most consistent with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. (B) is correct because the phrase “It’s so sad!” is much too colloquial in style for this passage. (A) is incorrect. The sentence isn’t quite a contradiction of the paragraph’s main idea, which is that Auden interpreted the painting to be about human indifference to suffering—certainly a sad theme. It doesn’t help the main idea much either though, which rules out (C); both tonally and in terms of its content the sentence isn’t worth keeping on those grounds. (D) is incorrect because the sentence doesn’t support the following remarks.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to correctly place a modifying phrase next to the object that it modifies. (B) is correct because it clearly shows that “the painting” was interpreted as an allegory, which means that it had a secret meaning hidden below the surface. (A) suggests that Auden himself was an allegory, as does (C); (D) causes confusion by separating “allegory” from “the nature of suffering…” In other words, it doesn’t make clear what the painting is an allegory of.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (C) is the correct because it does not contain any redundant words. Each incorrect option includes redundant words: in (A), “adding” is redundant with “as an addition,” in (B), “name” is redundant with “title,” and in (D), “to the title” is repeated later in the sentence.

32.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, consider the underlined sentence and it relates to the surrounding sentences. (C) is correct because “Each artist offers his own view” simply paraphrases the first sentence of the paragraph without adding any new information, and should therefore not remain. (A) is incorrect because the very broad, general statement doesn’t provide any new details. (B) could be tempting, because the idea that “each artist offers his own view” is consistent with the main idea of the paragraph, but that information has already been provided. (D) erroneously claims that the underlined sentence fails to support the main argument of the passage.

33.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to distinguish between commonly confused words and select the version that best expresses the intended meaning of the sentence.(C) is correct because the word "mute" means silent and, in the context of the sentence, it is the most accurate choice. (A), "moot," means “debatable” or “controversial;” you could say that the interpretation of the painting is “moot,” but Bruegel was not. (B), "mood," refers to a state of mind, which is not related to whether Bruegel shared an opinion or not. (D), "mused," in this context, could mean that Bruegel remained thoughtfully pondering his intentions for the painting, which is tempting—but not the most likely choice.

34.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate a list within a sentence. In this case, the items in the list are verb phrases: “is 1,000 times less dense …,” “has been used …,” and “can collect ….” These three phrases should be separated with commas, so (B) is the correct answer. (A) improperly omits a necessary comma between "glass" and "has." (C) improperly inserts a semicolon where a comma is required. (D) is incorrect because it creates two ungrammatical sentences: “What is 1,000 times less dense than glass.” has incorrect terminal punctuation (a period instead of a question mark), and the phrase after the period is a fragment.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the option that best matches the style and tone of the passage as a whole. Because “something out of science fiction” is a conventional phrase which is acceptable in a journalistic writing style, (D) is the correct answer. The (A( choice’s "an impossible invention in a book somewhere" is both too wordy and too informal in the context of the passage. (B) is written in an overly ornate tone that doesn’t fit the passage, and (C) is too informal.

36.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to identify to correct parallel structure in the underlined sentence.(C) is the best answer because it accomplishes this. (A), (B), and (D) all incorrectly combine gerunds and verbs, meaning that they’re not parallel.

37.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the option that provides the most precise word choice in the context of the sentence. Although all of the four options have similar meanings, in the context of the sentence, (D) "robust," provides the most precise choice. (A), (B), and (C) are not as precise in this context.

38.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to identify the conventional expression. (A) is the correct answer because the convention calls for "which" in nonrestrictive clauses. (B) "who" refers to a person and so it is incorrect; (C) "what" is incorrect in this case because it is an unconventional use of the identifier; and (D) "whom" also refers to a person rather than a thing.

39.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the correct parallel structure for the underlined portion. (D) is the correct answer because the formation “manufactured” in the simple past tense means the verb remains parallel to “injected.” (A), (B), and (C) all break the parallel structure.

40.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to interpret the quantitative information presented in the graph. (C) provides the most correct interpretation of the graphic: aerogel does, in fact, have a higher r-value than either rock wool or fiberglass. (A) is tempting, because the passage is primarily about aerogel and the evidence from the graphic is clearly being instructed to support the argument for aerogel’s value as an insulator. However, (A) is incorrect because the graphic indicates that Vacuum Insulated Panels actually have a higher r-value than aerogel. (B) is a misreading of the graphic: r-value is indicated by grey bar, and the bar for aerogel extends to 30 while the bars for fiberglass or rock wool do not even extend to 10, thus indicating a higher r-value for aerogel. (D) is a plausible statement which supports the use of aerogel as an insulator, but fails to represent information from the graphic.

41.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to identify the logical order of sentences. (D) is the correct answer because sentence 1 focuses on the uses of aerogel insulation, so it makes the most sense to place it between one that mentions aerogel’s use as insulator and one that lists an additional form of insulation made from aerogel. (A) is not correct because it describes aerogel insulation before the idea of aerogel as an insulator has been introduced, (B) is incorrect for the same reason as (A), and (C) is incorrect because it creates an illogical order for the information.

42.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) is the correct answer to this question about main ideas because it focuses on possible new uses for aerogels. This paragraph mainly discusses on-going research into possible uses for aerogels in environmental cleanups. (A) explains the current capabilities of the researchers rather than focusing on the research being conducted. (C) focuses on how and where aerogels are made now, rather than focusing on research into future applications. (D) could serve to introduce the idea of research into improving certain aspects of the aerogel production process by setting up a contrast, but has an unsuitably strong negative tone, and doesn’t actually establish the main point.

43.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to choose the most precise word in the context of the sentence. Although the options have similar meanings, (A), “avoid,” provides the most precise word choice here. All of the word choices would mean that harmful organic solvents are not used, but most also have additional connotations that make them inappropriate choices. (B), "dodge," implies to move quickly to get out of the way; it can be used metaphorically to talk about “dodging” things other than physical objects by means other than physical movement, but still has a connotation of rapid action to narrowly escape a consequence, which is inappropriate in this context. (C), “evade,” and (D) "resist," have additional political or moral connotations, so these are inappropriate word choices. (A) "avoid," in this case, means to keep away from doing something, which is an appropriate word choice in this context.

44.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question requires you to punctuate a list of properties that future aerogels might possess. (A) is the best answer because it correctly separates the items in the list with commas. (B) incorrectly uses semi-colons. Semicolons can be used to separate items in a list when the items within the list contain commas, but these items do not contain commas. (C) may be tempting, because it includes commas and lists are often introduced with colons. However, in order for a colon to be used before a list the clause that directly precedes the colon must be a complete independent clause. In this case, the colon is incorrectly placed between the preposition “with” and its object (the list, which is a compound object). (D) omits punctuation entirely, which is correct only when a list is limited to two items. This list contains three items, and therefore requires commas.