1.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to remove unnecessary punctuation. (A) is correct: since “first duke of Hamilton” and “an advisor to King Charles I” form a list that is only two items long, a comma is not required to separate them. (B), (C) and (D) all insert unnecessary commas.

2.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to choose the correct transition word or phrase. (B), “Although,” correctly indicates that James Hamilton chose to leave his estate to his brother even though Anne was his actual heir. (A) and (C) both suggest Sir James made this choice because Anne was the true heir, which does not make logical sense. (D) is not a logical transition in this case.

3.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to choose the correct punctuation mark to end this sentence. (C) correctly ends the sentence with a comma, which is appropriate because the sentence is a statement. (A) incorrectly uses an exclamation point, while (D) incorrectly uses a question mark. (B) inserts an unnecessary comma and ends the sentence with a comma, which is never correct.

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to choose the option that matches the tone of the rest of the passage. (C), “everything,” is correct because it is formal enough to offer consistency of tone. (A), “the entire kit and kaboodle,” is a slang expression that does not match the tone of this passage. (B), “a bunch of stuff,” is also too colloquial. (D), “the whole nine yards,” is, like (A), a slang expression that does not fit in a passage this formal.

5.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to decide if the writer should add a sentence to an existing passage. (D) is correct because the explanation about modern use of confiscation is an unnecessary tangent that adds nothing to the passage. (A) and (B) both incorrectly claim that the information in the proposed addition is helpful. (C) is incorrect because there are no claims earlier in this paragraph about how confiscation is used today, so this sentence has nothing to contradict.

6.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question tests your understanding of punctuation within a sentence. (A) is correct because the commas correctly set off both the name and the title of Anne Hamilton’s husband. (B) incorrectly omits the necessary punctuation entirely. (C) incorrectly omits the comma between “husband” and “William;” this makes it sound as if Anne had multiple simultaneous husbands and William was only one of them. (D) incorrectly inserts a comma between his first name and his surname while omitting the comma that should follow his surname. It also replaces the comma after “Selkirk” with a semicolon, which turns “whom she married…” into a fragment.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the verb form with the correct tense. (D), “raised,” is correct because the action described is a single completed action that took place in the past, the simple past tense is appropriate. (A), “raise,” is in the present tense. (B), “were raising,” is in the past progressive; although this is a past-tense form, it describes ongoing actions that may not have ended. (C), “had raised,” is in the past perfect, which describes events even further back in the past than another past action.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to choose the clearest and least confusing option. (B) is correct because the order of the words clearly communicates that both the title and the ownership of the estates would be passed from one generation to the next. (A) clearly states that the title was secured but the syntax makes it unclear how Anne’s actions affected the estates. (C) and (D) are both awkward and unclear.

9.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to determine which choice most appropriately introduces the paragraph. (C) is correct because it transitions effectively from the discussion of titles in the previous paragraph to the construction of Hamilton Palace, which is the focus of this paragraph. (A) not only does not provide an appropriate transition, it presents a statement that is clearly untrue. (B) focuses only on the titles rather than on the estates. (D) may be accurate but its tone is inappropriate and it doesn’t specifically introduce the information in the paragraph.

10.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to remove unnecessary punctuation. (B) is correct because no punctuation should fall between a subject and its verb. (A) inserts a comma between a subject, “Parts of the home,” and its verb, “were,” which is never correct. (C) incorrectly inserts a colon. (D) incorrectly inserts a semicolon.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to identify the most logical placement of a sentence within a paragraph. Sentence 3 observes that parts of the home were sold off, and sentence 6 explains what happened to some of those parts. Therefore, (C) is the correct answer because it makes the most sense for sentence 6 to come immediately after sentence 3. (A), (B), and (D) all disrupt the logical order of information.

12.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question tests your understanding of subject-verb agreement. (C), “helps,” is correct; since the subject “Radiocarbon dating” is a singular noun, its verb must also be in the singular. (A), (B), and (C) are all plural forms.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to distinguish between commonly confused words as well as complete and incomplete sentences. (D) is correct because “its invention” means “the invention of it,” which makes sense here. (A) is incorrect because “it’s” is a contraction of “it is,” which wouldn’t make sense in this context. (B) can be eliminated because it both adds a needless apostrophe and removes the word “Since.” Without “Since,” a dependent marker word, the sentence’s first clause becomes an independent clause rather than a dependent clause, and the sentence as a whole becomes a comma splice.. (C) can also be eliminated because it lacks “Since.”

14.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (B), “alive,” is correct because the “However” statement in the next sentence transitions to a discussion of dead organisms, strongly implying a dead/alive contrast. (A) is incorrect because “lively” means “full of energy” rather than “not dead.” (C), “enlivened,” means “made more exciting.” (D), “livid,” means “angry.”

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the right preposition for an English idiom. Because “at a rate” is an idiomatic expression, introducing the phrase “a rate” with any other preposition here would be unidiomatic so (D) is the correct answer. (A), (B), and (C) all suggest incorrect prepositions.

16.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consult the graphic, and ensure that you understand the information that's displayed and the units, labels, and other elements. (B) is correct because the graph shows that every 5,700 years the percentage of original carbon-14 declines by half. (A) is wrong because the graph shows loss, rather than gain. (C) is wrong because the graph clearly shows that half is lost every 5,700 years. (D) is wrong for the same reason.

17.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question, consider the claim in the paragraph and whether each answer offers direct support for that claim. (C) is correct because it provides an example of a time when carbon-14 dating might yield an inaccurate result. (A) is close, because it does describe a situation that could make the carbon-14 dating process less accurate if applied to more recently deceased organisms, but this paragraph discusses how accurate carbon-14 dating is in general, not for recent cases specifically. (B) shifts the discussion to allotypes of carbon, which doesn’t support the paragraph’s claims about the dating process’s potential inaccuracies. (D) discusses the concept of inaccuracy more generally, which is too far out of scope.

18.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to position a modifying phrase so that it modifies the correct noun or noun phrase. (A) is correct: it is the only choice that both makes it clear that Ötzi was preserved in ice and does not introduce any other confusion. (B) suggests that the hikers were preserved in ice, which doesn’t make any sense. (C) suggests that the entire nation of Italy was frozen in ice. As well, its other modifiers are placed in a way that creates a stilted, ungainly sentence. (D) confusingly separates “on the alpine border” and “between Italy and Austria” and also jumbles their order.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to choose the most concise option. Because "handmade clothing" is a straightforward description of the mummy's attire, (C) is the correct answer. (A) is redundant because, if the clothing is “handmade,” “sewn at home” doesn’t tell us anything new. (B) is redundant because, if the clothing is “his,” it is obviously clothing “that he had.” (D) redundantly states that the clothing is both “handmade” and “hand-sewn.”

20.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to choose the correct verb tense. (C) is correct: the phrase “originally thought” suggests that the scientists thought something in the past but have since changed their minds. Therefore, it makes sense for this sentence’s verb to be in the past. (A) incorrectly uses the present tense, (B) uses an incorrect future tense, and (D) incorrectly uses the subjunctive mood. The words “would be” describe something that hasn’t actually happened, but the scientists genuinely did believe this.

21.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the logical transition word. (D) is correct because the previous sentence described an old hypothesis about the age of the fossilized forest; this sentence describes a new result that overturned the old hypothesis. The two sentences contrast with each other, so “However,” which indicates a contrast, is appropriate. (A), (B), and (C) all wrongly indicate a causal connection between the old and new theories.

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (B), “perfect,” is correct: as the paragraph states, radiocarbon dating has flaws but is still powerful. (A) goes too far; the passage does discuss potential inaccuracies and problems with radiocarbon dating, but it never calls its overall correctness into question. (C), “unspoiled,” describes the excellent physical condition of something rather than its accuracy. (D) is closer in meaning to “complete” or “total.”

23.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the verb that grammatically agrees with its subject. (B), “are,” is correct because the subject is the plural “social media platforms,” so the verb must also be plural. (A) and (C) are both incorrect because they are singular forms. (D), “be”, is not a form of the verb “to be” which can follow a subject in a declarative sentence..

24.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate a list. (C) is correct: because there are three items in this list, commas should come directly after the first two items. (A) lacks any commas at all. (B) places a comma in the middle of one of the list items, while (D) places one after the “and” rather than directly after the list item.

25.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the essay. Consider circling this type of question and coming back after later questions. (A) is correct because it deals with the topic of the essay in general rather than a specific point. (B), (C), and (D) are all specifically focused on the early reaction to the “social media expert” job title, which is not the main point of the passage.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (A), “amateurish,” is correct: it is a good way to describe an ill-prepared, unprofessional social media presence. (B), “unproven,” usually refers to an untested idea. (C), “basic,” means something closer to “simple.” (D), "raw," does mean "unpolished," but in a way that suggests something rugged and natural rather than something unprofessional.

27.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to choose the logical transition word. Because this sentence describes a similar scenario to the one before it, (C) “Likewise” the right choice. (A) and (B) both suggest that the second example contrasts with the first, but it doesn’t. (D) incorrectly suggests that the second example was caused by the first.

28.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to remove unnecessary punctuation. In this case, adding any punctuation would be incorrect because the clause that begins with “without” and ends with “them” could potentially begin and end with a pair of commas, a pair of dashes, or nothing on both ends. As written, the clause ends with no punctuation, so it must also begin with no punctuation, therefore (D) is correct. (A), (B), and (C) are incorrect because a semicolon, em dash, or colon should never come between a subject, “a company,” and its verb, “risks.”

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to distinguish between commonly confused words. In this case, you must choose both the correct noun and the correct preposition to follow it. (B) is correct because to have a “stake in” something means to be invested or involved in something, which makes sense here; it is inappropriate for companies to talk about issues that don’t involve them. (A) uses the right noun, “stake,” but an unidiomatic preposition, “in.” (C)’s “stakeholder of” uses both the wrong noun (a stakeholder is a person who is invested in something) and preposition (like “stake”, “stakeholder” takes the preposition “in”). (D) also uses an inappropriate noun: a sweepstake is a kind of lottery.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to correctly join independent and dependent clauses. (B) correctly uses a comma to link a dependent clause, beginning with “When an employee,” to an independent clause, beginning with “the 130-year-old organization.” (A) combines these clauses with no punctuation, creating an ungrammatical run-on sentence. (C) turns the dependent clause into its own sentence, creating an ungrammatical fragment. (D) creates a run-on sentence and also adds an incorrect comma between an adjective, “130-year-old,” and “organization,” the noun it modifies.

31.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To answer this question correctly, consider the relevance of the material in the question to the paragraph as a whole. (D) is correct because the proposed addition gives specific details about the social media presence of the Red Cross and Red Crescent, but that’s not the main topic of the paragraph. Instead, the paragraph is about how companies handle embarrassing gaffes online. (A) is incorrect: even though the proposed addition is tangentially related to the story told in this paragraph, it is still off-topic. (B) is incorrect because the sentence doesn’t help support the paragraph’s claim about failing gracefully. (C) is wrong simply because the information was never stated before.

32.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence and fits the overall tone of the passage. (B), “effective,” is correct because the sentence is concerned with the skills required to do a job well. (A), “expedient,” means “efficient,” but this paragraph discusses the skills that lead to writing well, not quickly. (C), “majestic,” is too grandiose, and (D), “okay,” is too colloquial.

33.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the least wordy or redundant option. (D) is correct because it is the most concise choice. (A), (B), and (C) all redundantly repeat a phrase similar to the already-used “moment-to-moment;” although they name specific units of time, “moment-to-moment” already captures the idea of seeing events as soon as they happen.

34.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question tests your understanding of punctuation within a sentence. (A) correctly uses a colon after “disagreed” to introduce the clause “since illustration…” and uses commas to separate items in a list. (B) incorrectly inserts a dash between “since” and “illustration,” which are part of the same clause. (C) makes the same mistake with a colon. (D) correctly places the colon but incorrectly omits the commas between the items in the list.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to choose the logical transition word or phrase. (D), “however,” is correct because Paragraph 1 introduces two arguments and Paragraph 2 challenges both of those arguments. Therefore, “however,” which indicates contrast or opposition, is an appropriate transition word. (B), (C), and (D) are all words that indicate a similarity or connection between ideas. Since the two paragraphs oppose each other, implying that they agree is incorrect.

36.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (C) is correct because “simplistic,” which means “too simple,” creates a parallel with the phrase “too broad” earlier in the paragraph. (A), “saccharine,” means “too sweet.” (B), “sanctimonious,” means “scolding in a condescending, morally superior way.” (D), “unpretentious,” means “not making any claims to superiority.”

37.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question tests your understanding of subject-verb agreement. (A) is correct because “Krahulik,” the subject of this verb, is a singular noun, so the verb must be singular to agree with it. “Suggests” is the only singular form available. (B), (C), and (D) are all plural forms.

38.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to correctly link two independent clauses. (C) is correct because “...terrible choices” and “Should he…” can both stand on their own as sentences so they can only be linked by a strong punctuation mark, such as a semicolon, colon, or dash. (A) leaves the sentences separate, which is acceptable, but places a colon between the verb “he” and its predicate incorrectly splitting a single clause. (B) connects the sentences with a comma, creating a comma splice. (D) does not use any punctuation to link the sentences, creating a run-on sentence, and, like (A), introduces an ungrammatical colon in the middle of a clause.

39.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to compare items of the same category. (C) is correct because it is only logical to compare Hamlet’s experience with our experience, not with us. Therefore, to parallel “his,” a possessive pronoun is required. “Ours” is the only possessive pronoun available. (A) is not a possessive pronoun and is also, inappropriately, a reflexive pronoun. (B) is not a possessive pronoun. (D) is, inappropriately, a reflexive pronoun, and also incorrectly shifts from first-person plural (“we”) to third-person singular (“one”).

40.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (B) is correct: it conveys all the relevant information in a short, elegant phrase. (A) and (C) introduce unnecessary, complicated words that don’t add anything to the meaning but make the phrase harder to understand. (D) cuts the main verb of the final clause, creating an ungrammatical sentence fragment.

41.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, consider the relevance of the material in the question to the paragraph as a whole. (C) is correct because the main goal of this paragraph is to list the ways that different games model the world through rules and choices, so describing a side character in one of these games is off-topic. (A) is incorrect because the preceding sentence explains how Depression Quest makes certain options unselectable. The existence of a side character is not an example of this principle. (B) is incorrect because the paragraph does not develop a contrast between protagonists’ partners or friends in the two games. (D) is incorrect because Roger Ebert’s opinions have no connection to the discussion of rules and choices in this paragraph.

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (D) is correct because it is a clear and complete sentence. (A) confusingly suggests that the player is forcing the game to make choices. (B) is a sentence fragment. (C) is very confusing and unidiomatic: “X confronts itself to Y” is not a correct construction in English.

43.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the word that most clearly expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (C) is correct because someone who is “crippled” has had some ability reduced or disabled. Since the characters in this sentence “become unable to perform other tasks”, this word is a good fit. (A), “haggled,” is a verb that describes negotiating a price with a merchant. (B), “stumped,” means “puzzled or unable to answer a question.” (D), “miffed” means “offended.” None of these options makes sense in context.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consider the main topic of the whole passage. (B) is correct because the passage as a whole argues that video games achieve the same goals as other art forms. (A) highlights the differences between games and other art forms, which means it runs against the main argument of the passage. (C)’s humorous tone is inconsistent with the tone of the passage as a whole. Moreover, the point of the passage is not specifically that one game is like one work of literature but that games as a whole can achieve the same goals as other art forms. (D) might be correct for a passage that focused on the negative cultural impact of Ebert’s and Krahulik’s views, but it does not fit the main argument of this passage.