Question Explanations For

Organization (Organization Practice Questions)

1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) is the correct answer to this question about introductory statements. Since the underlined portion is the first sentence for the whole passage, it needs to set the stage for everything else. “Biking in the city” is the title of the passage, so you can use this as a clue to the piece’s theme. (A) is much too narrowly-focused. The passage never returns to the origins of the word “picnic.” (B) is also too narrow. (D) might seem like an attractive choice, but if you compare it with (C), it’s not the best one. (D) emphasizes borrowing things, rather than bike-riding in the city.

2.

The Correct Answer is (G) — This question is about phrase and clause order. The correct answer is (G), as the other options are either confusing or misleading. (F) makes it sound as if Henry suggested, "Let's take a bike ride last year!", which does not make sense. (H) is clunky and makes it unclear who’s doing the suggesting. (J) uses the clumsy, “I, to have a picnic, and my friends.”

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to pick the right transition word between two sentences expressing contrasting ideas. (A), “However,” is the correct answer. It’s the only choice that signifies a contrast between the underlined portion and the sentence preceding it. Remember that the narrator states that his one bad experience didn’t stop him. (B), “Consequently,” creates a cause-and-effect link between the bad experience and the narrator’s perseverance, but this doesn’t follow. The narrator perseveres despite the bad experience, not because of it. (C), “Additionally,” and (D), “Also,” suggest that the two sentences are linked when they are actually contrasting.

4.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Here you must consider the necessity for a transition word between two sentences in a narrative sequence. (J) is the correct answer. In this case it’s not necessary to use any transitional statements at all. (F), “Meanwhile,” suggests that the narrator chose a bike, practiced riding it, and was “ready for the open road” all at exactly the same time. This doesn’t make sense, since these events must happen one after another. (G), “Conversely,” suggests a logical contrast, but there is no opposition between the events described in the two sentences. (H), “Therefore,” suggests that one event caused the other, while, in fact, one simply came after the other.

5.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) is the correct answer to this question about paragraph order. Paragraph 2 concludes the passage, so it should be at the end. The first sentence of Paragraph 2 also picks up directly on the last sentence of Paragraph 3. Paragraph 3 talks about being “ready for the open road,” and Paragraph 2 begins with, “Only, the road wasn’t so open.” (A) is incorrect; where Paragraph 2 is now, in the middle of the passage, it creates a confusing effect. (B) makes Paragraph 2 the opening one, which would be even worse. (D) is also incorrect; deleting the paragraph would get rid of lots of important information!

6.

The Correct Answer is (J) — This question tasks you with placing the right transition between two sentences expressing contrasting ideas. (J) is the correct answer. It’s easy to answer if you consider the paragraph’s first two sentences in full: the first states that most singers can only sing one note at a time; the second states that Tuvan throat singers can produce more than one. This content creates a contrast between the two, necessitating a word like “However.” (F), “Likewise,” is an agreement word rather than a contrast word. So is (G), “Furthermore.” (H), “Thus” suggests a cause-and-effect relationship that isn’t actually there.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The correct answer is (D). Since the next paragraph talks about the “resonance chambers” that Tuvan singers make with “their lips, teeth, throat, and tongues,” (D) offers a good transition to that theme. (A) shifts the focus to the history of Tuva, which isn’t the main theme of the following paragraph. (B) keeps the focus on music made with the mouth, but brings in beatboxing, which isn’t mentioned again anywhere else. (C) also keeps the focus on throat-singing, but introduces Arthur Miles, who is also never mentioned again.

8.

The Correct Answer is (H) — This is a question about the ordering of clauses and phrases within a sentence. (H) is the correct answer to this question. It arranges the clauses and phrase in the clearest order. (F) is difficult to follow, and makes the particularly clumsy “Tuvan singing, throat singing.” (G) is also hard to follow, and oddly isolates “the resulting sounds can range.” (J) creates confusion with “four distinct forms, depending on the particular style” (the order would need to be flipped for these to make sense). Also, “a deep growling of throat singing” is a redundant statement.

9.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question is about making a transition between two sentences expressing contrasting ideas. (A), “However,” is the correct answer. The word acknowledges throat singing’s spread from traditional venues in Tuva—sports competitions, banquets, and ceremonies—to new, “far-flung venues” elsewhere. (B), “Correspondingly,” doesn’t work because the word suggests that the two kinds of venues are identical, when they aren’t. (C), “As such,” suggests that the first idea caused the second, but there’s no evidence for this in the text. (D) is incorrect for the same reason.

10.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Your job for this question is to arrange a sentence’s clauses and phrases in a clear order. (H) is the correct answer. It’s the clearest and most orderly presentation of the information in the sentence. (F) opens in a way that, while not strictly grammatically incorrect, sounds odd: “Kongar-ol Ondar, for example, the great singer, many times performed…” (G) creates confusion; it’s not clear whether “the great singer” refers to Ondar. (J) is likewise clunky.

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This problem actually contains an error, which will be corrected in a future edition of the book: (A) and (B) are roughly equivalent sentences. The answer key lists (B) as the correct answer, but (A) and (B) are equally correct. (C) is less desirable than (A) or (B) because it is in the passive voice, and (D) fails to define the critical term “ACL,” which is introduced in this sentence. Since this sentence serves as an introduction, it should use strong, active language, and clearly define new terms.

12.

The Correct Answer is (H) — This question deals with transition statements that serve to introduce a whole paragraph. (H) is the correct answer. The end of the first paragraph relates to ACL surgeries, and the second paragraph relates to the history of such procedures. (F) diverts the focus away from ACL surgeries by talking about exercising after the injury. (G) is focused on surgery, but it’s redundant; it doesn’t really develop the ideas presented in the sentence before it. (J) also takes the focus away from ACL surgeries.

13.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) is the correct answer to this question, which demands that you put Sentence 4 in appropriate chronological order. The sentence describes an event in 1903, so it fits best before the event in 1917 (and also after the sentence inserted in Question 12, which, if you got it right, describes an event in 1895). If you used the Pick and Skip technique on Question 12, then you might find it easier to answer after looking at 13. Just remember that Sentence 1, “In 1917 the British surgeon…” is not actually the first sentence in the passage; the sentence inserted in Question 12 is. (A) is incorrect because it places the 1903 event after a description of surgical practices in the 1960s. (C) places the 1903 surgery after a description of the 1917 surgery, and is also incorrect. (D) is incorrect for the same reason as (C).

14.

The Correct Answer is (G) — This question asks you to choose a transition word between two sentences that develop the same idea with increasing specificity. (G) is the correct answer because “In fact” serves to emphasize the point that the ACL is the weakest ligament not just in the knee, but also in the body. (F), “Otherwise,” is incorrect because it suggests a contrast between the two sentences when, in fact, the second expands upon the claims of the first. (H), “Although,” is incorrect for he same reason; it suggests a contrast that isn’t there. (J) is also incorrect. The fact that the ACL is the weakest ligament in the knee doesn’t logically entail the proposition that it’s the weakest ligament in the body, so you can’t use “Therefore” here. However, you could use “Therefore” if it was the other way around, as in, “The ACL is the weakest ligament in the body. Therefore, it is the weakest ligament in the knee.”

15.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) is correct because Paragraph 3 begins by providing information about the ACL, explains why ACL injuries are so common, and finally transitions to the idea that “surgery to repair ACL injuries can be very effective.” Paragraph 1 names the ACL and introduces the fact that ACL injuries are very common. Paragraph 2 briefly discusses the history of ACL surgeries. Paragraph 3 thus provides an effective transition between paragraphs 1 and 2. While Paragraph 3 transitions to the idea of ACL surgery from more general information about the ACL, it doesn’t make sense to place it between two paragraphs that focus on ACL surgery, so (A) is incorrect. For the same reason, it doesn’t make sense to place Paragraph 3 after two paragraphs focusing on surgery, so (D) is also incorrect. The paragraph also doesn’t serve as an effective introduction, because while it provides some basic information about the ACL, it actually fails to define that term—a task that Paragraph 1 accomplishes. Thus, (B) is incorrect.