Question Explanations For

Test ( Writing and Language Test)

1.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to select the transitional word or phrase that best describes the relationship between ideas in the passage. (A), “However,” is correct. The previous sentence suggests that most people imagine that the Greeks all thought the same thing. This sentence says there was “a great diversity of opinions” among Greeks. “However” clearly communicates this contrast. (B), “Meanwhile,” is incorrect. “Meanwhile” means that two things happen or happened at the same time, but that does not make sense here: modern people and the ancient Greeks did not exist at the same time. (C) does not use a transition word at all, which fails to communicate the contrast between these sentences. (D), “Consequently,” suggests that there is a cause-and-effect relationship between the sentences, which is incorrect.

2.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the paragraph. Consider circling this type of question and coming back to it after answering later questions. (A) is correct. This paragraph provides an overview of the school of thought that originated with the philosopher Epicurus, known as Epicureanism. It therefore makes sense to introduce the paragraph with a sentence that introduces Epicureanism as an important philosophical movement. (B) is incorrect because, as the rest of the paragraph makes clear, Epicurus was in Greece, so “philosophers in the other parts of the world” are not the main topic. (C) is incorrect because this paragraph focuses on explaining the views of one school, not the conflict among schools. (D) is incorrect because, although the paragraph does mention that the philosophy of Epicurus was controversial, that is only one detail—not the main topic of the paragraph.

3.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the word or phrase that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (D) is correct because “conventional” conveys the sense of beliefs that are generally believed by most members of a society. Epicurus and his follows challenged widespread beliefs, as the next sentence makes clear. (A), “humdrum,” means “boring” or “unexciting,” but nothing in the passage suggests that the views that the Epicureans challenged were boring. (B), “routine,” refers to actions that happen regularly, which does not make sense describing beliefs. (C), “mundane,” also has the sense of “boring” or “uninteresting.”

4.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (A) is correct. “The Stoic school...Zeno” and “However, its most...2nd century CE” are both complete sentences. (A) correctly separates those sentences with a period and a capital letter. (B) is incorrect because it joins these two complete sentences with a comma, creating a comma splice. (C) is incorrect because it links the sentences with only the conjunction “but.” If “but” had been preceded by a comma, this would have been grammatical; without a comma, it is a run-on sentence. (D) is incorrect because, the dependent marker work “though” shows, “Though its most...2nd century CE” is a dependent clause, not an independent clause, and therefore cannot stand on its own as a complete sentence. As it stands, it is just a fragment.

5.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to recognize and remove unnecessary punctuation. (A) is correct. “A divine will they called ‘the Logos’” is a single noun phrase: “they called ‘the Logos’” describes “a divine will.” Since this is a single phrase, it doesn’t need any punctuation inside of it. (B), (C) and (D) all add unnecessary punctuation to the middle of this phrase.

6.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the version that logically compares like objects. (D) is correct because it logically compares the “views” of the Cynics to “those of the Stoics,” meaning “the views of the Stoics.” (A), (B), and (C) are all incorrect because they compare “views” with some form of “Stoics,” creating an illogical comparison between views and people.

7.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (C) is correct because it communicates its ideas without any redundancy. (A), (B) and (C) are all redundant because “respected” and “well-respected” and “held in high esteem”, “of high esteem,” and “of esteem” all mean the same thing. All three incorrect option have two of these phrases, but the sentence only needs one.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to maintain logical and consistent pronoun use. (B) is correct. The first part of this sentence reads “Only if one gave,” so this sentence must continue “could one live” to be consistent. (A) switches from “one” to “you,” (C) switches to “they,” and (D) switches to “he or she,” all of which are inconsistent with “Only if one gave.”

9.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence. (D) is correct. Sentence 2 provides an example of the rejection of possessions, status, and social norms described in sentence 5, so putting it there creates a logical progression. (A) is incorrect because, in its current position, sentence 2 interrupts the description of the general views of the Cynics with an example that does not clearly refer back to sentence 1, which only says that the Cynics have views similar to those of the Stoics—and Stoics have not been described as doing any of what Diogenes is described doing in sentence 2. (B) is incorrect because placing sentence 2 between sentences 3 and 4 would suggest that “these desires” refers to the way that Diogenes lives rather than the “desires for wealth and social power” mentioned in sentence 3. (C) is incorrect because, while placing sentence 2 after sentence 4 makes much more sense than earlier options, the “thus” statement in sentence 5 makes less sense following a specific example of how a particular Cynic lived that it does following a statement of their beliefs, and the example of Diogenes makes more sense following the specific statement that Cynics “chose to live without possessions or status” than the more general statement about their beliefs.

10.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (C) is correct. “Alexander the Great...cultures” and “In the Middle East...in the desert” are both complete sentences. (C) correctly separates those sentences with a period and a capital letter. (A) is tricky but incorrect. By putting a comma after “in the Middle East,” it makes it look like “in the Middle East” describes “cultures.” However, even if this were true, this sentence would still be a comma splice, joining two complete sentences (“Alexander...Middle East” and “The frugal...desert.”) with just a comma. (B) is incorrect because it splits off “In the Middle East” into its own sentence, creating a fragment. (D) is incorrect because it joins these two sentences without any punctuation at all, creating a run-on sentence.

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consider the idea in the prompt and whether each option offers direct support for that idea. (B) is correct. The idea here is “Greek ideas spreading through the Middle East and Asia.” (B) provides an example of this happening. (A) describes a feature of Judeo-Christian traditions without connecting it to Greek philosophy, so while it seems related to the preceding sentence, it does not support the idea in the prompt. (C) is information about the spread of Christianity that is not directly related to the influence of Greek philosophies, so it is not relevant to the paragraph and thus incorrect. (D) shows how people use a current word that refers to Cynicism rather than showing how Greek ideas spread through the Middle East and Asia.

12.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the word or phrase that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (B) is correct. The word “however” in this sentence suggests that GM techniques have “accelerated the process of developing new and better crops” in a way that contrasts with the way it used to be done. The preceding sentences says that we “gradually” improved in the past. “Radically,” meaning “very much,” conveys a great deal of acceleration, which strongly contrasts with the gradual improvements in techniques in the past. (A), “thoroughly,” means “complete.” This word doesn’t make sense as a modifier of “accelerated,” because acceleration can be fast or slow but not partial or complete. (C),“gradually,” suggests a slow change, and matches the description of how techniques improved in the past, but the “however” earlier in the sentence suggests a contrast with—not a continuation of—the “gradual” improvements in techniques in the past. (D), “instantly,” is incorrect because it has an absolute connotation. It suggests that something happens all at once, in a single moment—but that doesn’t make sense in the context of describing an acceleration in an ongoing process of improvement.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (D) is correct. “Scientists can modify plants” is an independent clause; “by creating a ring of DNA called a ‘plasmid’” is a prepositional phrase that uses an “-ing” verb to describes how the scientists modify plants. Adding a second “-ing” verb to this phrase using the conjunction “and” is a correct way of expanding the description. (A), (B), and (C) all use a form of “insert” that serves as an action verb and creates a new clause. (A) creates a comma splice by separating the new clause, “then they insert...plant cells,” from the first clause with only a comma. (B) creates a sentence fragment. “Whereupon,” meaning “at which point,” is a dependent marker word. That makes “Whereupon...plant cells” a dependent clause, which cannot stand on its own as a sentence. (C), like (A), is a comma splice, because “Scientists...a ‘plasmid’” and “they insert...plant cells” are both complete sentences.

14.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to distinguish between words with slightly similar meanings and select the version that best expresses the intended meaning of the sentence. (C) is correct. The word "deliver" conveys, in the simplest and most appropriate way, how the scientists introduce plasmids into plant cells. The (A) choice, "consign," has associations of either the shipping of merchandise or the emphastic disposal of something; neither of these associations apply in this case. (B), "inflict," suggests the causing of harm to someone or something; whatever your feelings about GM crops, in context "inflict" doesn't fit idiomatically with the word "into." (D), "purvey," also has commercial associations that don't fit with what's happening in the passage.

15.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the version that logically compares like objects. (C) is correct. “Crops” is a plural noun, so whatever the crops are being turned into must also be plural. “Organisms” is also plural, so it fits: it makes sense to turn plural crops into plural organisms. (A) is incorrect because it turns plural crops into a single organism. The crops are not being fused into a single organism, so this does not make sense. (B) uses a plural noun, “modifications,” but this noun does not make sense in context: the crops are being changed by modifications, not being changed into modifications. (D) uses the singular noun “organism,” which is incorrect for the same reason as (A). In addition, it uses the phrase “genetic organism,” which is redundant because all organisms have genes of some kind.

16.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the paragraph. Consider circling this type of question and coming back to it after answering later questions. (A) is correct because the paragraph describes various advantages of GM crops: creating insect- and herbicide-resistant plants and increasing the nutritional values of some crops. It therefore makes sense to start the paragraph by introducing the idea that GM crops have advantages. (B) is incorrect because, while the paragraph does discuss the popularity of GM crops in the United States, it does not discuss the popularity of such crops worldwide or the “enthusiasm” of farmers. Further, the popularity of the crops is mentioned as evidence to support the idea that they do, indeed, provide advantages—it is not the main focus of the paragraph. (C) is incorrect because the paragraph does not mention government regulations of technology. (D) is incorrect because the paragraph does not discuss how much easier it is to shape GM crops than conventional crops.

17.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate a list within a sentence. (A) is correct because it uses a set of commas to separate items in a series, with the conjunction “and” before the final item. (B) uses commas to separate items in a series, but it also places an incorrect “and” before the second to last item in the series. (C) is incorrect because, while semicolons can be used to separate items in lists when those items have commas within them, these items do not have their own commas. (D) is incorrect because it places a colon between the adjective “certain” and the noun it modifies.

18.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, consult the graphic. Ensure that you understand the information displayed as well as the units, labels, and other elements. While you can’t see the exact values of data points, you can use the lines at increments of 20 percentage points to estimate their values. All of the answer choices claim to describe changes in varieties that are both herbicide- and insect-resistant. The line for GM crop varieties that are insect- and herbicide-resistant is marked with triangular points, and increases from a value that’s close to 0% in 2000 to one that is close to 80% in 2014. (B) is correct because it provides values (1% and 76% percent) that correspond to what the line for insect- and herbicide-resistant varieties shows. (A) is incorrect because, while it shows an increase, it provides values (93% for 2014 and 25% for 2000) that correspond to the line for “All GE varieties,” not specifically insect- and herbicide-resistant varieties. (C) and (D) are incorrect because they both show a decline rather than an increase, and they seem to correspond better to the lines for herbicide-tolerant only and insect-resistant online varieties.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the transitional phrase that best describes the relationship between ideas in the passage. The sentence preceding the transition word is about nutritional benefits of GM crops, especially in the developing world. (C), “For example,” is correct because this sentence provides a specific example to support that claims: “Golden rice” contains vitamin A, which is an example of enhanced nutritional value, and “Africa and South Asia” are areas in the developing world. (A) “On the other hand,” indicates a contrast between two sentences, but these sentences do not contrast with each other. (B), “Meanwhile,” means that two possibly contrasting things are happening at the same time as each other. Since the second sentence is an example of the point made in the first, they aren’t telling us about two things happening at the same time: they are discussing the same thing. The second is just a specific example supporting the first. (D), “However,” like (A), indicates an opposition between ideas, but there is no opposition here.

20.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) is the correct answer. Pronouns need to agree with their antecedents in number; the singular pronoun “it” agrees with the singular antecedent “food,” so it is correct. The original sentence incorrectly uses the plural pronoun “they” to refer to the singular “food,” so it is incorrect. (C) and (D) both use pronouns that are used to refer to people rather than a pronoun that can refer to something that is not a person; food is not a person, so (C) and (D) are incorrect.

21.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to maintain a sentence structure that is parallel with that already used. (D) is correct because the present tense verb “disrupt” matches the verbs “outcompete” and “give,” and it makes sense completing the idea of “GM crops could …” (A), (B), and (C) all use forms that break the parallel structure set up by the sentence, so they are incorrect.

22.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence. Sentence 4 begins with the transitional phrase “for example,” so consider what the example illustrates. (B) is incorrect because sentence 1 discusses the idea that people “view GM crops with suspicion,” and while sentence 3 could help to explain why people view such crops with suspicion, it does not provide an example of suspicions—but, rather, of specific possible environmental effects. (C) is incorrect because sentence 2 expresses an idea about fears of human health effects, but sentence 4 provides examples of environmental effects—not human health effects. “For instance” at the beginning of sentence 4 would not refer back to anything that made sense. (D) is incorrect because sentence 5 serves as a concluding sentence for this paragraph. “These risks” should refer back to all of the risks discussed in the preceding paragraph, and this sentence doesn’t make sense if no specific risks have been discussed beforehand.

23.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the verb that grammatically agrees with its subject. The subject of the sentence is “history.” (C) is correct because the third-person singular verb “is” agrees with the third-person singular subject “history.” (A), “are” is a third-person plural verb. If the nearby noun “students” were the subject of the sentence, this would be correct, but the subject of the sentence is “history.” (B) is incorrect because the verb “being” cannot be used on its own as the main verb of a sentence. (D) is incorrect because “am” is a first-person form. This can only agree with a first-person pronoun like “I.”

24.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, consider how each way of arranging the sentences at the underlined portion affects the meaning of the sentence as a whole and relates the first and second clauses. (C) is correct because joining the clauses with the conjunction “but” expresses an appropriate contrast between the idea that European scholars made little progress and the idea that scholars in the Islamic world made numerous discoveries. (A) is incorrect because the conjunction “and” grammatically connects the clauses, but fails to illustrate the contrasting relationship between ideas. (B) is incorrect because “thus” suggests that scholars in the Islamic world made discoveries because European scholars did not, but that is not a logical conclusion on its own, and nothing in the passage suggest that it’s true. (D) is incorrect because using only a colon does grammatically connect the clauses, but it suggest that the second clause explains the first or provides a specific example, rather than illustrating the actual relationship of a contrast.

25.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to correctly punctuate a parenthetical element within a sentence. (D) correctly uses commas to set off a parenthetical phrase. (A) uses a dash at the beginning but a comma at the end of the phrase. Since the punctuation at the beginning and the end of a parenthetical phrase needs to match, this is incorrect. (B) omits the necessary comma at the end of the phrase. (C), like (A), mixes dashes and commas.

26.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to recognize the limits of complete sentences and avoid fragments or run-on sentences. (B) is correct because “In fact...calculation” and “the term...his work” can both stand as complete sentences. (A) is incorrect because, while a conjunction can be used to connect two independent clauses, this choice creates a run-on sentence by leaving off the comma that should precede the conjunction. (C) is incorrect because the adverb “also” can’t do the job of a conjunction here; it’s also redundant, because “also” appears again later in the second clause. (D) combines the two complete sentences, “In fact...calculation” and “the term...his work,” with just a comma, creating a comma splice.

27.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (C) is correct. This option is concise without losing any valuable information. (A) is excessively wordy: while none of the words mean exactly the same thing as others in the sentence, it is possible to express this idea with fewer words. (B) is also unnecessarily wordy. (D) cuts too much: without the word “bloodletting,” it is impossible to know which technique al-Razi was studying.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence. Sentence 3 refers to “this work on diagnosis,” and then transitions to the idea that he also pioneered tests for the effectiveness of treatments. (C) is correct because it positions sentence 3 between sentence 4, which provides an example of al-Razi’s work on diagnosis, and sentence 5, which gives an example of al-Razi using the technique of the clinical trial to test the effectiveness of bloodletting. (A) is incorrect because, while the reference to “this work on diagnosis” makes sense where the sentence is now, the sentence is followed by more information about diagnosis—rather than information about al-Razi’s work on testing treatments. (B) is incorrect because it places sentence 3 so that the reference to “this work on diagnosis” doesn’t make sense: there’s no information about such work in sentence 1. (D) is incorrect because the reference to “this work on diagnosis” does not make sense following sentence 5, since sentence 5 is about treating, not diagnosing, illness

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the paragraph. Consider circling this type of question and coming back to it after answering later questions. (D) is correct because the paragraph discusses important observations made by Muslim astronomers as well as the later discoveries those observations would inspire. (A) is incorrect because the paragraph does not discuss religious opposition faced by Muslim scientists. (B) is incorrect because the paragraph only discusses astronomy, not mathematics or medicine, and does not emphasize the challenge posed by the ideas of Muslim scientists. (C) is incorrect because the paragraph does not discuss the limitations faced by Muslim scientists.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to determine whether nouns should be possessive or not, based on the context of the sentence, and to correctly punctuate possessive or non-possessive nouns. (B), “this model’s” is correct. The noun needs to be singular, because it refers to the singular Ptolemaic model, and it needs to be possessive, because this phrase refers to the predictions of this model. “Model’s” correctly creates a singular possessive by adding an apostrophe and an “s” to the singular noun “model.” (A), “this models,” is a plural non-possessive form, which is wrong on both counts. (C), “this models’” is a plural possessive, but it should be singular. (D), “the model,” is singular but not possessive.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, consider the claim and whether each option offers direct support for that claim. (C) is correct because this sentence clearly connects the work of specific astronomers at Maragha to a specific piece of work done by Copernicus, showing how the “mathematical innovations” of the astronomers at Maragha inspired Copernicus. (A) provides further information about the general topic of Copernicus’s connection to Muslim astronomy, but it does not provide specific evidence supporting that connection, so it is incorrect. (B) does not contain anything about the connection between Copernicus and Muslim astrology, so it is incorrect. (D) comments broadly on Copernicus’s relationship to Muslim-authored texts, but rather than providing evidence that he was influenced by them, it actually provides information that suggests he could not have read the original works, so (D) is incorrect.

32.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to select the most conventional form of an expression, using the clearest and most typical prepositions. (A) is correct. “Elaborate” is a verb that is conventionally followed by the preposition “on.” (B), (C), and (D) all use prepositions that do not conventionally follow the verb “elaborate,” so they are incorrect.

33.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question asks you to select the transitional word or phrase that best describes the relationship between ideas in the passage. (D) is correct because the previous sentence gives the reason that the accomplishments of medieval Muslim scientists should be better known. Therefore, “For this reason” is an appropriate transition. (A), “Even so,” implies a contrast between the previous sentence and the current sentence, but these two sentences do not contrast with each other. (B), “For most people,” does not communicate the cause-and-effect relationship between these sentences. Also, it suggests that there are some people who should not know more about medieval Muslim scientists. The rest of the passage suggests that everyone should know about their accomplishments. (C), “Afterward,” only indicates that one thing came after another. Although the present day does exist after contributions of thinkers in the Islamic world, the primary connection between these two sentences is cause and effect, not time.

34.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to maintain a sentence structure that is parallel with that already used. (B), “live,” is correct, because this verb needs to be parallel with “eat,” which is a simple present-tense verb. (A), “living,” is a participle, or the “-ing” form of the verb, and (C), “to live,” is an infinitive. Neither are parallel with the form of the verb “eat.” (D), “lived,” is in the past tense and therefore not parallel with “eat.”

35.

The Correct Answer is (B) — To answer this question correctly, read ahead and consider the main topic of the paragraph. Consider circling this type of question and coming back to it after answering later questions. (B) is correct because the paragraph provides information about the work performed by clinical dieticians, and it follows a paragraph that concludes by mentioning that dietitians work in a variety of settings. A sentence identifying what clinical dieticians are and where they work effectively conveys the main topic of this paragraph. (A) is incorrect because the paragraph does not discuss the licensure requirements this sentence introduces. (C) is incorrect because it emphasizes the facts that dietitians are not doctors, which is not mentioned in the rest of the paragraph or related to its main idea. (D) is incorrect because the idea of general rules for diet that it introduces is not the main topic of the following paragraph, which focuses mainly on patients with special health needs and how clinical dietitians help them.

36.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the most concise version of the underlined portion that still expresses the intended meaning. (C) is correct because it is the most concise answer that does not lose lose valuable information. (A) and (B) both use the words “disorder” and “disease,” which are redundant with one another in this context. (D) is incorrect because the phrase “which limits dietary choices” is redundant with the phrase “that impose dietary restrictions.”

37.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This question asks you to maintain logical and consistent pronoun use. (A), “them,” is correct because it is another form of the pronoun “they” used earlier in the sentence to refer to the same antecedent (the patients from the previous sentence). (B), (C), and (D) are all incorrect because the people who could get sick if they don’t have a healthy diet are the same as the people who need help designing a healthy diet, and unnecessarily switching pronouns in this sentence makes it seem as though someone else or some other group could get sick.

38.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to recognize and remove unnecessary punctuation. (C) is correct. In this sentence, “with poor access” is an essential clause specifying the “communities” where dietitians may work, so it should not be separated from that word by punctuation. (A), (B), and (D) all separate “communities” from “with poor access” with unnecessary punctuation, so they are all incorrect.

39.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select a pronoun that correctly agrees with the antecedent “clients.” (B), “them,” is correct. The antecedent of this pronoun is “clients,” a plural noun, so a plural pronoun is needed. (A), “him,” and (C), “her,” are both singular pronouns, so they do not agree with “clients.” (D), “us,” is plural, but it is a first-person pronoun; these are only correct when the group being referred to includes the speaker. Since this passage does not indicate anywhere that it is being narrated by a dietitian’s client, this is not appropriate.

40.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the transitional word or phrase that best describes the relationship between ideas in the passage. (B), “in addition,” is correct because the current sentence mentions an additional degree that dietitians can go on to earn after earning their bachelor’s degree. (A), “regardless,” implies some kind of contrast. These two sentences do not contrast with each other, they build on each other, so “regardless” is not an appropriate transition. (C), “For example,” does not make sense because a master’s degree is not an example of a bachelor’s degree. It is a further, more specialized degree earned later, as indicated by the phrases “go on to” and “in a subfield.” (D), “Certainly,” emphasizes the speaker or writer’s certainty about the truth of a statement, often to set up a surprising contrast with another true statement. That is not what this sentence does, and there is no apparent reason to emphasize the truth of this particular statement over others in context, so this choice is incorrect.

41.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This question asks you to select the choice that is most consistent with the style and tone of the passage as a whole. (C) is correct because it matches the somewhat formal style of the passage. (A), (B), and (D) are all too informal, so they are incorrect.

42.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question asks you to select the word or phrase that most precisely conveys the intended meaning of the sentence. (B) is correct because “complement” means to add to something in a way that improves it, which captures the relationship between dieticians’ knowledge and their communication skills. (A), “compliment,” means to praise.(C), “condescend” means to talk down to someone. (D), “complicate” means to make more complex.

43.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To answer this question correctly, consult the graph. Ensure that you understand the information displayed as well as the units, labels, and other elements. According to its title, the graph shows “percent change in employment” for dietitians and nutritionists—in other words, the percent change in the number of people employed as dietitians and nutritionists. The graph compares dietitians and nutritionists to “health diagnosing and treating practitioners” and the total for all occupations. (D) is correct because the graph does show a 21% increase in the number of dieticians and nutritionists, as indicated by the top bar. (A) is incorrect because the graph shows a 20% increase in the number of health diagnosing and treating practitioners, not in the number of dieticians and nutritionists. (B) is incorrect because the graph shows an 11% increase in the number of all workers, not in the number of dieticians and nutritionists. (C) is incorrect because the graph shows how much certain types of employment are likely to grow, not what percentage of the total work force will hold certain jobs.

44.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To answer this question correctly, look for pronouns, transition words, or other words or phrases that relate the sentence to other information in the passage, and consider its most logical relationship to each other sentence. (C) is the correct answer. Sentence 2 discusses the importance of dieticians in caring for elderly Americans, and sentence 4 explains how dieticians can provide assistance with some of the problems of aging. Sentence 4 must therefore come directly after sentence 2. (A) is incorrect because it lets sentence 3, which changes the subject from “boomers” to obesity, come between sentences 2 and 4, which are both about “boomers.” (B) is incorrect because sentence 2 makes a general point that sentence 4 develops in more detail, so sentence 2 should come before sentence 4. They do not make sense in the other order. (D) is incorrect for the same reason as (A): it allows other sentences to come between sentences 2 and 4. Also, sentence 5 works best as the last sentence because it summarizes the main point of the paragraph.