Question Explanations For

Test ( Reading Test)

1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage states that Mrs. Honeychurch “wanted to show people that her daughter was marrying a presentable man” (lines 4−5), indicating that she wants to show her neighbors that her daughter has made a respectable match. Furthermore, “it pleased her” (line 11) to be congratulated on this match; she likes feeling the approval of others. Together these reactions suggest that she is concerned with presenting an impressive image in her society, giving support to (C). Although Mrs. Honeychurch has positive feelings about her daughter’s engagement to Cecil, the passage does not give any indication that she “thoroughly enjoys” his company; thus, (A) is incorrect. Although the passage refers briefly to Mrs. Honeychurch thinking back on a dress (lines 28−30), there is no specific indication that she sews dresses or anything else particularly well; thus, (B) is incorrect. Mrs. Honeychurch is the one who insists on their attendance at the garden-party (lines 1−3), so she is the opposite of disinterested in it; thus, (D) is incorrect.

2.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Lines 1−5 indicate Mrs. Honeychurch’s desire to present an impressive image, in the form of a presentable fiancé for her daughter, to the inhabitants of her neighborhood, who constitute her society. Therefore, (A) aligns with both the topic and the correct answer of the previous question. The lines referenced in (B) do suggest that Mrs. Honeychurch appreciates the approval of others, but they also state that she was pleased about something that is in fact a “social blunder,” a reaction which might not be regarded as “impressive”; therefore (B) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (C) do not relate to Mrs. Honeychurch at all; they do not even align with the content of the previous question, so (C) is incorrect. In the lines referenced in (D), Mrs. Honeychurch does refer to society, but nothing in the quoted text suggests much about her own relationship to it; so (D) is incorrect as well.

3.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “sentiment” with “opinion” in context makes sense because Cecil is raging against the sense that outsiders feel the right to have strong opinions about his personal matters. “Nostalgia” refers to a fond remembrance of the past; it does not make sense in context because the sentiment the outsiders are expressing is about something happening in the present day—Cecil and Lucy’s engagement. Thus, (A) is incorrect. (B) is incorrect because “emotion” typically refers to an internal experience, but Cecil is clearly upset about a public expression. “Tenderness” refers to gentleness or kindness, and although the outsiders may think of themselves as displaying it, it is unlikely that Cecil perceives them as displaying that quality while he is frustrated with them; thus, (D) is incorrect.

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Cecil is being shown around to strangers in order to receive approval for his positive qualities; this is analogous to a show dog being shown to judges to receive approval for its bearing and looks. Cecil is entering a new social sphere for himself, not returning to a place he had previously known; thus, (A), which refers to a return to a hometown, is incorrect. Cecil does not concede or grant anything to the people he is meeting, nor is he leading them; thus, (B) is incorrect. Although Cecil is facing a kind of judgment, Mrs. Honeychurch has correctly assumed it will be positive judgment, which means his situation is not analogous to that of a criminal who is waiting for judgment in a court of law, making (D) incorrect.

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — After referring to the engagement party as appalling, Cecil specifically states that it is “disgusting, the way an engagement is regarded as public property” (lines 34−36). He also explicitly states that “An engagement ... is a private matter, and should be treated as such” (lines 42−43). Together, these comments indicate that he is angry because he feels the party intruded into his relationship by celebrating publicly something he strongly feels should be between only him and Lucy. Although Cecil may have disliked the other guests, he does not comment on whether or not they were interesting, so (A) is incorrect. Cecil explicitly states in line 54 that he does not play tennis, so (C) is incorrect. Cecil uses an Italian expression in line 59, but throughout the passage he communicates in English without complaint, so (D) is incorrect.

6.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Replacing “affect” with “feign” in context makes sense because the sentence is describing Cecil pretending to have a “cosmopolitan naughtiness” he does not have, and “feign” can mean “pretending to have.” Cecil is not deliberately causing himself to have this assumed sophistication, or influencing his imagined “naughtiness”, so (A) and (C) are incorrect. To use “impress” in this sentence would mean Cecil is trying to amaze the “cosmopolitan naughtiness” mentioned; it is impossible to amaze or “impress” something that is not animate, so (D) is incorrect.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Once Lucy has received an answer to the question she asks in line 74, she considers it briefly and then quickly agrees (lines 78−79). This shows her willingness to hear and accept Cecil’s thinking, which provides strong support for (D). Lucy’s question is a simple one, and nothing in the text indicates she is bringing a sophisticated or worldly context to it, so (A) is incorrect. Although Lucy does seem to accept the requirements of country society more than Cecil does, her attitude towards them is not negative enough to be called resignation, nor is it on display in her response in line 74; thus, (B) is incorrect. At no point in the passage does Lucy do anything to suggest resentment of Cecil or his worldview, so (C) is incorrect.

8.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Cecil brings up fences to illustrate more fully the point he begins making in lines 65−68, where he refers to “irremovable barriers” between himself and the rest of the community; this supports the idea that he feels he is different from the others. Although Cecil finds aspects of polite society frustrating, he does not feel excluded from that society; in fact, some of his frustrations stem from being considered a part of it. Thus, (B) is incorrect. Cecil does express a desire for privacy, but he also says that he “must accept” the differences between him and other members of the community, indicating that he does not plan to demand privacy; he also does not express a desire for a secluded house, merely for the privacy of his relationship with Lucy. (C) is therefore incorrect. As he talks about fences, Cecil is clarifying for Lucy’s benefit something he has thought about previously, not sharing an epiphany or sudden revelation; thus, (D) is incorrect.

9.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The lines in (C) establish the topic that Cecil uses the image of fences to clarify, thus providing the key to why he brings up fences. (C) thus aligns with both the topic and the content of the previous question, making it correct. The lines in (A) do relate to the broad cause of Cecil’s sense of alienation, but they are not nearly as directly related to the image of fences as the lines in (C), so (A) is incorrect. The lines in (B) are a wry comment on the neighborhood in general, not on the sense of difference that Cecil illustrates with the image of the fences; thus, (B) is incorrect. The lines in (D) are spoken by Mrs. Honeychurch and represent a misunderstanding of Cecil’s point about fences; they do not give insight into what Cecil actually meant to say when he was talking about fences, so (D) is incorrect.

10.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lucy laughs when she corrects Mrs. Honeychurch’s mistaken impression that she and Cecil were speaking of real fences, indicating that the humor of this portion of the passage stems from the fact that Mrs. Honeychurch does not understand the conversation. Furthermore, the passage shows that she has been inattentive to the conversation in lines 80−81, when she becomes “suddenly alert,” indicating that she was not alert to the conversation before. Although Lucy is laughing, the context of her laughter is correcting Mrs. Honeychurch, not appreciating the exchange between Cecil and Mrs. Honeychurch, which is not particularly spirited; thus, (A) is incorrect. Cecil does not express any irritation at all with Lucy, and although it can be inferred that he finds aspects of Mrs. Honeychurch’s worldview irritating, they do not seem to bother him increasingly; thus, (B) is incorrect. At no point in the passage does Lucy tease Cecil, so (C) is incorrect.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage opens by stating that “human beings are in the process of dramatically reshaping the Earth’s ecosystems” (lines 1−2) and gives examples throughout of human impacts on Earth’s environment. In its concluding paragraph, the passage reiterates that “human activity has changed the face of the planet” (lines 86−87). The passage does not identify any rival scientists that it is attempting to contradict, so (A) is incorrect. Although the passage argues that it is necessary to address problems posed by climate change, it does not put forth any specific solutions for them, so (B) is incorrect. The passage does address recent changes in global biodiversity in lines 39−62, but this is only one of the elements of its broader point about human impact on the environment; thus, (D) is incorrect.

12.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage both describes a variety of linked trends the author has observed and expresses concern about the consequences, stating that they “will affect life on Earth for millions of years to come” (lines 92−93). Although the passage does display concern, the author does not indicate that the situation is hopeless, so (A) is incorrect. The author does not display any skepticism towards the evidence presented in the passage, nor does the author project a jaded—meaning cynical and weary—tone, so (C) is incorrect. The author presents all the evidence and arguments in the passage with confidence in their veracity. Thus, (D) is incorrect.

13.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “explosion” with “growth” in the original sentence makes sense, since the original sentence is discussing an increase in diversity of life. The diversity of life was not “shattering,” which would imply fractured or reduced diversity, so (A) is incorrect. A “catastrophe” would imply a sharp decrease in diversity of life, which is the opposite of what the original sentence is saying, so (B) is incorrect. An “outburst” typically implies a specific activity or set of activities, so (D) is incorrect.

14.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The lines in question compare the present extinction event to a serious one that ended the existence of famously large and powerful creatures; this comparison suggests that the current extinction event is similarly extreme. Nothing in the lines referenced in the question suggests that the dinosaurs became extinct due to anything but natural causes, so (A) is incorrect. The comparison in question only deals with animals, so extending this to humans is too far a reach for these lines alone to make; therefore, (C) is incorrect. The comparison does not highlight a connection between humans and earlier forms of life, so (D) is incorrect.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage brings up ice cores to talk about the ways scientists have used them to examine changes in the carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere over time (lines 71−79). (A) is incorrect because the passage indicates that ice cores remain a source of information about carbon dioxide (lines 76−79), and it does not indicate that carbon dioxide destroys ice cores. The passage does not indicate that ice cores remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, so (B) is incorrect. The passage mentions that industrial processes produce carbon dioxide, rather than be fueled by it (lines 66−69); thus, (C) is incorrect.

16.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The lines referenced in (B) make clear that ice cores provide information about greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide; this aligns with both the topic and the content of the previous question. The lines referenced in (A) only describe what greenhouse gases are; they do not relate to ice cores at all, making (A) incorrect. The lines referenced in (C) describe the rise in temperatures, and the effects of this rise, but do not describe the relationship between ice cores and carbon dioxide, so (C) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (D) summarize the argument of the passage as a whole; they contain no specific information about ice cores or carbon dioxide, so (D) is incorrect.

17.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “mark” with “indication” in the original sentence makes sense, because the original sentence refers to the effects of human activity that will be left on Earth after they are gone. The original sentence is not referring to an assessment of human activity, so (A), “grade,” does not make sense. The original sentence does not refer to an abstract expression of human activity, but rather to a concrete consequence of it, so “symbol” (B) is incorrect. (C), “target” is incorrect because the original sentence does not refer to a goal of human activity.

18.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage refers to scientists estimating “the number of undiscovered species that have been lost” (lines 47−48), which strongly implies that some species which have not yet been discovered have already gone extinct. Although the passage draws a link between human activity and extinctions, it also refers to a “natural rate” (line 50) of extinction, which implies that not all extinctions are the result of human activity; thus, (B) is incorrect. Although extinctions imply lower biodiversity, the passage does not draw any link between modern extinctions and the biodiversity specifically generated in the Cambrian period, so (C) is incorrect. Although the passage does imply that human activity is linked to both extinctions and climate change, the passage explicitly discusses human-related extinctions that happened before the beginning of climate changes (lines 21−28); thus, (D) is incorrect.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The lines referenced in (C) specifically highlight “undiscovered species that have been lost,” which aligns with the previous answer’s assertion that some life forms are going extinct before being discovered by humans. The lines referenced in (A) are an example of how scientists divide geological time; it does not relate to species going extinct before humans have discovered them, so (A) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (B) discuss extinctions of animals that humans came into contact with, not species that had not been discovered; thus (B) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (D) focus on the effects of human activity, which does not relate to the extinction of undiscovered species, so (D) is incorrect.

20.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graph shows that in the column labeled “Total,” 20.1% of assessed species are “considered threatened”; this supports the assertion that about 20% of all assessed species are currently threatened with extinction. Although the graph does show that a relatively small percentage of birds are considered threatened, the passage and graph do not indicate any reasons for why some types of animals might be less at risk than others, so (A) is incorrect. According to the graph, 21.7% of mammals are threatened, while 30.5% of amphibians are threatened, so (C) is incorrect. The graph presents species considered threatened, not species that have recently gone extinct, so (D) is incorrect.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Minnow's speech urges broadcasters to remember their responsibility to provide more for the public than the instant gratification of westerns and cartoons, and he sustains this argument throughout the piece. (C) is therefore correct. (A) is incorrect because, while Minnow does acknowledge that the most popular cartoons, newspaper content, and TV shows are not particularly edifying, he expresses these ideas to remind broadcasters of their responsibilities, not to criticize the American people first and foremost. (B) is incorrect because Minnow uses his claims about children and television to support his main idea; it is not his main idea as such. (D) is incorrect because Minnow brings up newspapers as an example of a form of media that has not completely given in to the public's demands.

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Throughout the passage, Minow calls for television programming to be better than it is now, through ways such as the creation of shows that will “teach” or “uplift” children (lines 20−22). Minow does compare and contrast television genres in that he compares popular programming such as westerns and cartoons to the more beneficial programming he would like to see. However, he uses this comparison as merely a way to achieve his overall purpose; the comparison itself is not his purpose, so (A) is incorrect. Minow does express concern about harm that television can do to children, but he also expresses hope that television can be a positive influence in children’s lives, so (C) is incorrect. Minow only refers to other forms of media, specifically newspapers, briefly and in service of his overall point; thus, (D) is incorrect.

23.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Minow implores his listeners to “search [their] consciences” (lines 31−32) and to “communicate ideas” (line 67). He also states that they must “serve” all of the “many people in this great country” (56−57). These statements are all consistent with appeals to morality and a sense of civic obligation. At no point does Minow suggest incorporating television into school curricula, so (A) is incorrect. Minow does not argue that drawing child audiences will bring profits, nor does he suggest that profit should be the primary motive for the makers of children’s television, so (B) is incorrect. Minow discusses newspapers, but he does not suggest that they present competition for television networks, so (C) is incorrect.

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In the lines referenced in (B), Minow explicitly appeals to the “consciences” of his listeners to see his point; this is consistent with the topic of the previous question and the content of the correct answer. The lines referenced in (A) provide information about children’s television viewing habits, however this excerpt is not an element of his main strategy of making appeals to morality, so (A) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (C) compare the position of newspapers to the position of television networks; they do not involve a moral appeal, so (C) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (D) are a commentary on people’s viewing preferences; they are not part of the author’s strategy to use moral appeals, so (D) is incorrect.

25.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In context, Minow illustrates the dangers of “following the ratings” by pointing out that many things which are very popular with children are also very bad for them. This suggests that children are not equipped to decide what is best for them. (B) is incorrect because Minow is implying that parents and teachers should prevent children from making bad choices for themselves; he says nothing to indicate that he thinks parents and teachers are overly restrictive. (C) is incorrect because although Minow does mention elsewhere that he believes in the educational possibilities of television (lines 20−28), he does not include the idea of educating children about a healthy diet. (D) is incorrect because Minow says nothing about any negative feelings he might have about parents and teachers, nor does he suggest that they are negligent.

26.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “steady” with “consistent” makes sense in context, because the original sentence is describing the hypothetical regular experience of “ice cream, school holidays, and no Sunday school” (lines 18−19). “Motionless,” “firm,” and “rooted” would all fail to make sense in context, because none of them are words that could be used to describe a regiment of experiences, so (A), (B), and (D) are all incorrect.

27.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the fourth paragraph, Minow points out that although the entertaining parts of newspapers—comics and romantic advice columns—are the most popular sections of newspapers, the informative parts of newspapers—news and editorials—still remain in positions of prominence. The paragraph does not mention the fact that newspapers can be transported easily, so (A) is incorrect. In the fourth paragraph, the author is making the opposite of the argument outlined in (B): he says that televisions, not newspapers, pander to their audiences. Thus, (B) is incorrect. The paragraph explicitly states that “newspapers do not even need a license from the government to be in business” (lines 43−45), which is the opposite of what (C) states, so (C) is incorrect as well.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Throughout the passage, the author argues in favor of increasing the amount of positive television programming. In the last paragraph (lines 69−77), he specifically states that he believes television stations should “editorialize” in a “fair and responsible manner,” implying that they should contribute to the national discourse in positive ways. (A) is incorrect because the author strongly implies that more westerns are unnecessary because they are only attempts to follow ratings (lines 45−51). (B) is incorrect because the author explicitly argues that television networks should pay less attention to ratings than they do and that “the ratings services themselves would agree” with this idea (lines 52−53). (D) is incorrect because the author explicitly argues that there is an important place for positive children’s television programming (lines 16−34); he wants better children’s programming, not less of it.

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The lines referenced in (D) encourage television networks to engage with the public in an educational way; this aligns with the topic and the content of the previous question and its correct response. The line referenced in (A) is a rhetorical question introducing a different branch of the author’s argument. It does not align with the content of the correct answer to the previous question, so (A) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (B) are related to the author’s broader argument that television networks should use their influence more positively; however, they do not specifically encourage programming that informs the national discourse, so (B) is incorrect. The lines referenced in (C) form a commentary on tendencies in the public taste. This is not directly relevant to the improvements in the content of television networks mentioned in the previous question, so (C) is incorrect.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Replacing “satisfied” with “fulfilled” in the original context makes sense, since both words are commonly used to describe when an obligation has been taken care of, which is what is being described at this point in the passage. Obligations cannot be “convinced,” or “sated,” since these carry an emotional connotation, and obligations are inanimate; therefore, (A) and (C) are incorrect. “Pleased” is used to refer to a person feeling or showing pleasure and satisfaction; an obligation cannot show or feel pleasure, therefore (D) is incorrect.

31.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In the lines referenced in the question, the “fine children’s shows” present a limited positive option likely to be overlooked in favor of the abundant negative options of shows featuring “cartoons, violence, and more violence” because the negative options are considered more pleasurable. (B) likewise presents a limited positive option—a few healthy options—likely to be overlooked in favor of abundant negative but pleasurable options (unhealthy, but tasty, food). In (A), the positive experience (enjoyable music) is preferable to the negative experience (loud construction work); however, it does not present a situation in which the negative option is pleasurable and therefore more appealing than the positive option, so (A) is incorrect. In (C), one element (the representative) is acting on the other element (by suppressing their viewpoints); the direct relationship between the elements is not analogous to the relationship between the options in the original situation, which are indirectly related through their relative appeal for the viewers. Thus, (C) is incorrect. Similarly, in (D), there is a direct relationship between one element of the situation (the protestors) and the other element (the campus event); this direct relationship is not analogous to the indirect relationship between the elements present in the original situation, so (D) is incorrect.

32.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The first paragraph of Passage 1 outlines an interest in studying Earth’s early chemical environment in order to better understand how life arose. The rest of the passage details how the chemicals and conditions during this early period could have given way to the components of life. Thus, (B) is the correct answer. (A) is incorrect because the passage does not assert that Earth is the only planet in the universe that could support life, only that it is currently the only planet known to harbor life. (C) is incorrect because although the passage does describe a period of Earth’s history that was different from the modern day, this information is only given as background information for its main purpose, which is to explain how a young Earth could have supported life. (D) is incorrect because although the passage describes past experiments in a laboratory, the author uses these scientific methods only to show how early conditions on Earth may have engendered life.

33.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In line 30, “particular” is used to describe the “mixture of gases” that Stanley Miller passed electricity through in an experiment. Earlier in the passage, the author names the exact gases that existed in this early period, which (D), “specific,” correctly refers to. (A) is incorrect because “fastidious” means “finicky” or “demanding,” which are words that would not normally be attributed to inanimate objects such as a mixture of gases. (B) is incorrect because saying a mixture is “individual” would imply that the mixture is solitary or standing out in relation to other mixtures, which is not what the passage is saying. (C) is incorrect because the passage does not suggest that the mixture of gases in early Earth’s atmosphere was “detailed,” as in comprehensive, but that the study used the precise mixture representative of this early period on Earth.

34.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In lines 31−37, the author talks about how Miller found that electricity from lightning could interact with chemicals and lead to the production of ‘the building blocks of life’. Lines 37−41 respond to this by adding that ultraviolet light, like electricity, could cause reactions that produce these components of life. Thus, lines 37−41 are used to suggest an alternative energy source for the formation of organic compounds, so (C) is correct. (A) is incorrect because lines 37−41 only suggest an alternate explanation for the creation of life, which does not rule out lightning strikes. (B) is incorrect because even though lines 37−41 suggest that the Sun could have been involved in the origins of life, this information is only shared to back up ultraviolet light’s role, not emphasize the Sun. (D) is incorrect, as there is no suggestion in Passage 1 that organic compounds may have originated in outer space.

35.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To answer this question, look around the given line to understand its context. Lines 45−50 state that nucleic acids could have been important to the development of life, and that simple nucleic acids in particular “could have replicated themselves and even created proteins from amino acids, like modern life forms do.” The passage thus suggests that the reason RNA could have been the basis for the development of modern life is that RNA can perform some of the functions needed to sustain a living organism, making (A) correct. The passage does not say that RNA organisms would have been more suited to the conditions of the Hadeon eon than any other sort of organism, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is incorrect because Stanley Miller was only able to produce building blocks of proteins, not RNA molecules themselves. (D) is incorrect because the passage says nothing about the stability of RNA molecules.

36.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 47−50 show that simple nucleic acids (RNA molecules) can function in ways that modern life forms do, which exactly matches the claim of the correct answer to the previous question. (A) and (B) are incorrect because they do not mention or imply anything specific about RNA. (C) is incorrect because this portion of the passage only describes how Miller’s experiments helped produce the building blocks of RNA molecules; it does not mention anything about how RNA functions.

37.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 65−71 explain that molecules that enable RNA to assemble may have formed when the universe began, meaning that abiogenesis could have happened when the universe was young. (A) is incorrect because although the passage shows that organic compounds exist in many places throughout the universe, it hints that Earth’s life could have originated from somewhere outside of Earth, not that it must have. (B) is incorrect because it is contradicted by the passage; the early Earth could have been “seeded” (line 88) with organic compounds, suggesting that the early Earth did not destroy organic compounds. (C) is also incorrect because it is contradicted by textual evidence; the passage states that organic compounds can be found “throughout the Milky Way galaxy and elsewhere in the universe” (lines 94−95), not just in our own Solar System.

38.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This quote shows that the conditions to produce life could have been found in the early period of the universe, which directly supports the correct answer to the previous question. (A) and (D) are incorrect because both focus on the place where abiogenesis could occur, not on its timescale. (C) is incorrect because these lines show that our Solar System likely had the materials for the building blocks of life, not that abiogenesis could have occurred when the universe was young.

39.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage is using the term “readily” to mean that organic molecules form effortlessly; the passage also states that there are an abundance of organic molecules in our Solar System. “Easily” matches the meaning of the original term, and works as an inference from the passage’s information regarding the number of present organic molecules, making this option correct. (A) and (C) are incorrect because they imply that organic molecules have a conscious intention to form, which their inanimate nature makes impossible. (D) is incorrect because organic molecules do not have feelings, making it impossible for them to do anything in a happy fashion.

40.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 62−68 show that PAHs may help RNA strands assemble, making (B) correct. (A) is incorrect because although the passage says PAHs help RNA self-assemble in oceans, it does not say that PAHs actually join up with or combine with RNA. (C) is incorrect because while the passage says that PAHs can and possibly do help RNA synthesis in places around the universe, it does not say that PAHs are necessary for RNA synthesis—in other words, that RNA cannot form without PAHs. Finally, (D) is incorrect because the passage does not specify that PAHs make possible the synthesis of RNA in nebulae in deep space, and the passage does not give enough evidence to draw this conclusion.

41.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Passage 1 supports the idea that life on Earth arose from non-living chemicals (lines 2−3), including non-living organic molecules such as those mentioned in lines 34−37. Passage 2 suggests that abiogenesis, the production of life from non-living chemicals, took place soon after the early Earth was seeded with non-living organic molecules. Therefore, the authors of Passages 1 and 2 would most likely both agree that life arose on Earth from non-living organic compounds, making (A) the correct answer. (B) is incorrect because the author of Passage 2 would disagree, since their passage states that Earth is not the only place where organic compounds can form. (C) is incorrect because the author of Passage 1 would likely disagree with this; Passage 1 says “Earth is the only planet in the universe known to harbor life” (lines 6−7), and does not assert that life exists elsewhere. (D) is incorrect because although Passage 1 suggests that life on Earth descended from an “RNA world”, it does not say that life on Earth could only have descended this way; moreover, Passage 2 does not say that life on Earth must have derived from an RNA world.

42.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In lines 6−10 of Passage 1, the author is describing Earth as “unique” in its life-enabling chemical makeup. Since the author of Passage 2 does suggest that life-enabling chemicals can be found in a number of extraterrestrial environments, and this statement makes logical sense in response to the quote of this question, this is the correct option. (A) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not say that life probably developed in a nebula elsewhere before arriving on Earth. (B) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not assert that scientists do not know what the early Earth’s atmosphere was like. (D) is incorrect because Passage 2 does not discuss whether modern organisms would have been able to survive on the Hadeon Earth, much less state an opinion on this topic.

43.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage focuses on comparing first-past-the-post elections and proportional representation, two electoral systems used in democratic nations, which this option states, making it correct. (A) is incorrect because the passage does not compare democracy to other forms of governance. (B) is incorrect because the passage does not explore the historical development of democratic ideals. (C) is incorrect because while the passage does detail potential drawbacks of electoral systems, it does not describe the potential drawbacks of whole democratic systems, and its primary focus is not on these potential failings.

44.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The word “alienate” appears in the sentence where the author explains how candidates in the FPTP system “cannot alienate large groups by expressing extreme views” (lines 20−21). (D), “offend,” is correct because it describes the response a group of people might have when faced with a perspective they vehemently disagree with. (A), “isolate,” is not an accurate way to describe what expressing an extreme view might do to a large group of people, as the candidate would not be setting apart a large group (which “isolate” means), but offending them. (B) is incorrect as it means “move away from,” and doesn’t capture the idea of a group taking offense. (C) would suggest a deliberate alienation, which does not fit the context, as the author is referring to an accidental alienation; therefore, (C) is incorrect.

45.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The third paragraph of the passage (lines 35−49) describes how proportional representation can give more room to extreme voices in government, which this option states, making it correct. (A) is incorrect because it contradicts that passage’s statement that PR does allow for political extremism. (C) is incorrect because it is not PR, but FPTP that permits extremist politicians to siphon votes from mainstream parties. (D) is incorrect because it denies the link between PR and extremist participation in politics which this passage claims to exist.

46.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Lines 35−37 state that proportional representation allows for more extreme viewpoints in government, which is direct support for the correct answer to the previous question. (A) is incorrect because it merely gives a brief overview of what proportional representation is, and does not mention or allude to extremism. (B) is incorrect because it describes a relationship between FPTP and extreme voices, not between PR and extreme voices. (D) is incorrect because it only says that voters in PR elections tend to vote for parties instead of individuals, which does not support that PR allows for extremists to have a voice in government.

47.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The sentence that mentions the 1992 election describes how the extreme right candidate, Ross Perot, took votes from the center-right candidate, George H.W. Bush. This may have helped the center-left candidate, Bill Clinton, win. Therefore, the author most likely mentions the 1992 U.S. presidential election to illustrate the impact spoilers can have on elections, making (B) correct. The author does not mention any preferred candidate, so (A) is incorrect. (C) is incorrect because the mention of the 1992 election is not used to show how extreme candidates are unlikely to win in FPTP. Rather, the mention of the 1992 election is used to show the effect of extreme candidates on similar but moderate parties and the election outcome as a whole. (D) is incorrect, as there is never any ‘conventional wisdom’ about US presidential elections mentioned in this passage.

48.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 26–29 feature the author’s point that extreme candidates have a “spoiler” impact on elections by hurting moderate candidates. Lines 30–34 immediately follow as an example of this phenomenon. (A) is incorrect because these lines describe the lack of representation of extremist groups, not their effect on elections. (C) is incorrect because although these lines refer to candidates that are unlikely to win, the issue at hand is the discouragement of voters and the concept of wasted votes, not any effect on the election. (D) is incorrect because it discusses a possible positive aspect of FPTP elections and does not mention spoilers.

49.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author is implying in this line that since candidates are personally accountable to citizens, citizens will be more engaged in regional governmental and political matters, meaning their “involvement” will increase; therefore, (C) is the correct answer. (A) means a promise to marry, which is not the way “engagement” is being used, thus this option is incorrect. (B) is incorrect because “citizen appointment” would suggest a single, formal meeting between citizens and their representative, which is not the meaning here. (D) is incorrect because the passage does not suggest that the accountability of elected officials would cause negative interactions with citizens.

50.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 74−78 describe how in PR systems, because parties appoint legislators, the government may be more committed to serving the interests of the parties rather than the citizens. (B) presents a situation where a person in power (the CEO) is more committed to the interests of those who have influence over her position (the board of directors), than to the people she is supposed to serve (the shareholders); both situations feature a focus on an entity that is in charge, rather than dependants on the focus giver, making this option correct. (A) and (C) are incorrect because they both describe a person responding to one group, rather than describing someone prioritizing the interests of a group over the interests of others. (D) is incorrect because it describes an organization responding to one group’s trends, instead of showing this organization elevating one group over another.

51.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The graphic shows the 1992 US Election outcomes, based on percentage of the popular vote that each candidate won. The passage discusses this election in lines 30−34, noting that Bill Clinton won. Given that he received only about 44% of the votes, it is possible to conclude that a candidate can win the presidency without earning a majority of votes. (B) is incorrect because although Ross Perot could have won if he’d additionally received all of the votes that George W. Bush did, it cannot be known how many of those votes he would have actually earned, and so it cannot be inferred that he would have won the election. (C) is incorrect because the graphic only represents one data point in which a candidate draws votes away from a primary candidate, so no conclusions can be made about presidential elections in general. (D) is incorrect because the graphic does not provide any information about how Clinton’s performance related to Ross Perot’s; it is instead focused on the percentage of popular votes each candidate received.

52.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graph shows that Bush has slightly under 40% of the popular vote; if Bush’s percentage of the popular vote is increased by 10% by decreasing Perot’s percentage of the popular vote by the same amount (who initially only has roughly 19%), he would overtake Clinton, who only has roughly 43%. (A) is incorrect because no matter how Perot’s percentage of the popular vote doubled, he would still have less than Clinton. (C) is incorrect because the graph does not predict different outcomes based on which candidates ran, which this option suggests. (D) is incorrect because Clinton and Bush both have far more votes than Perot, so their total votes combined would always be greater than Perot’s votes combined with either one of them.