1.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, the narrator is thinking back on her time in Beijing, a city that she loves. She is thoughtful and pensive as she recalls memories of her time there, so (D) is the best answer. (A) and (B) are both too negative and thus incorrect. (C) is incorrect as it is too strongly positive; there is no evidence in the passage to suggest the narrator is “worshipful” or extremely reverent of the city.

2.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The passage focuses on the narrator’s love for and attachment to a city, Beijing, so (H) is the best answer. (F) is out-of-scope, as Beijing is not the narrator’s hometown—instead, the passage mentions she was left home to go there (lines 9−10). (G) is irrelevant; though language acquisition is touched on, the passage is not focused on the learning of a language, but rather on the narrator’s fascination with a place. (J) is also irrelevant; the good deed mentioned in the passage is a specific detail that adds color, but does not constitute the main purpose of the passage.

3.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Since the narrator says that at eleven she was in the Philippines (lines 7−8), and that she later went to Beijing (lines 9−10), (B) is the best choice. (A) and (C) are incorrect as the narrator went to Beijing eight years after age eleven; she does not seem to have grown up in Beijing. Hong Kong is not mentioned in the passage, making (D) irrelevant.

4.

The Correct Answer is (J) — At the beginning of the passage, the narrator is looking back on her time in Beijing while looking at a postcard that depicts a language university in Beijing. Once the scene settles in Beijing, Xin Feng and Miao Ban are described as the narrator’s “language partners” (line 10), whom she meets every Friday in the school library. These combine to suggest that the narrator met Xin Feng and Miao Bian because they all study at the same university, making (J) is the best answer. (H) is unsupported by the passage, because although the narrator goes to a restaurant with Xin Feng and Miao Bian, this is an activity they engage in after they have met up for the purpose of studying, not a chance introduction or get-together. (F) has no evidence to support it. (G) is incorrect; there is no suggestion that the narrator has known Xin Feng and Miao Bian since high school.

5.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Process of Elimination is a very good strategy for this question. The passage mentions local foods as the narrator walks around the market (lines 24−27), so (A) can be eliminated. Public leisure activities, such as the dancing in lines 35−41, are also mentioned, eliminating (B). Historical sites like the Imperial Palace are also touched on (line 29), so (D) can be eliminated. This leaves (C), art festivals, which are not mentioned in the passage, making (C) the correct answer.

6.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Here, the narrator is describing waiting outside the Imperial Palace, noting that she had become more comfortable saying “ancestors” and waiting for some sort of larger realization to engulf her. It can be inferred that this realization is connected to her ancestors and heritage, so (H) is the best answer. (F) is irrelevant; the given paragraph is not focused on language or learning. (G) is a confused content answer choice, as though the narrator is in a crowd, the “realization” she references is not connected to this crowd, and she does not express anywhere a desire for the crowd to overtake her. (J) is out-of-scope, as the narrator is focused on her heritage and not inspiration for her writing.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To answer this question, eliminate the answer choices that are plausible, and choose the answer choice that is not plausible and has no support in the passage. In the scene where the narrator encounters the old man and his wife, the narrator demonstrates her charity and empathy by buying the couple a meal and subway ticket. (A) is plausible, as this image of a begging couple is at odds with the more picturesque image of dancing couples in the previous paragraph. (B) is plausible as well, since the anecdote shows overlooked and tragic people wandering within Beijing. (C) is a possibility, again because the anecdote provides a contrast with some of the narrator’s sweeter memories of Beijing. (D) is unsupported by the passage; the narrator mentions that the husband notes his wife is ill, but nowhere does the narrator indicate that she fears falling ill. (D) is therefore the correct answer.

8.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The narrator says that “Beijing was a detour to keep off the hunger till we reached home” (lines 56−57). Here, the narrator is suggesting that Beijing was a temporary, and not permanent, home, so (H) is the best answer. (F) is incorrect, as the narrator’s statement that the “months passed quickly” (line 56) indicates a much longer stay in Beijing than a couple of weeks. (G) is out-of-scope; tourists are mentioned in the passage, but the lines here do not refer to them. (J) is irrelevant and too literal, as the “detour” referenced here is metaphorical and not a literal description of Beijing’s physical landscape or infrastructure.

9.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The narrator notes in lines 59−63 that if she had made a home in Beijing, she “would have forgotten all my wonder.” (D) is therefore the best answer, as leaving Beijing allowed her to keep the mystery of the city intact. (A) is unsupported by the passage, since the narrator does not mention returning earlier than expected to the Philippines. (B) is similarly unsupported, because although the narrator at the end references the story itself as her own writing about Beijing—“This is how you talk about something you love” (line 77)—she does not say that she has written a renowned story about Beijing. (C) can be eliminated as the narrator does not mention any luxurious travel undertaken after her time in Beijing.

10.

The Correct Answer is (F) — The story the narrator mentions about her friend and friend’s boyfriend mirrors her own feelings of nostalgia, loss, and inevitability as she leaves Beijing, so (F) is the correct answer. (G) is out-of-scope, as the purpose of the story is not to comment on romantic relationships in the city, and no romantic relationships other than her friend’s are mentioned. (H) is a confused content answer choice; the narrator does not indicate jealousy of the relationship. (J) is irrelevant—the story is not designed to show the narrator’s support as a friend, but to provide a parallel story of loss and mixed emotions.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, “inelastic” is used to indicate that demand does not immediately change in response to price, so (C) is the best answer. (A) is irrelevant to the question about price. (B) is incorrect, since “inelastic” is not specific to relations among different car models. (D) is a confused content answer choice—the passage does not indicate consumers actively resist economic pressures; in fact, it would indicate the opposite, that consumers do adapt to them, just slowly.

12.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The passage notes in lines 19−23 that since demand is inelastic, sales are relatively stable, and thus, no increase in revenue is seen; it then says that “Nonetheless, producers and individual nations keep trying to increase revenue by producing and selling even more oil” (lines 21−23). The assertion that revenue has not increased from increase in oil supply, and the admonishing tone of “Nonetheless…” indicate that suppliers’ efforts to increase revenue by supplying more oil are ineffective. This is captured by (H). (F) is directly opposite and can be eliminated. (G) is incorrect, as the authors view these efforts negatively, not as “inventive.” (J) can be eliminated because it is too strong—attempts to sell more oil may not work, but they would not necessarily be “disastrous” for these players.

13.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Even though the passage notes that in the short term, demand for oil is inelastic, it also indicates that in the 1970s, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries were able to increase revenues by restricting supplies, and that the same could happen today (lines 30−36). Thus, (D) is the best answer. (C), a decrease in price of oil, would not lend itself to increased revenues; it is directly opposite to the correct answer and can be eliminated. (A) and (B) can be eliminated as well, as decreasing supply would not in the short run have an effect on demand.

14.

The Correct Answer is (G) — You are looking for the one thing that is not mentioned in the passage. (G) is the best answer here, as the passage notes efforts and strategies of countries to increase revenues, and nowhere indicates that they are satisfied with current profits. Lines 43−46 indicate that many producers believe oil prices will eventually increase, so (F) can be eliminated. The passage also notes that many countries are not able or willing to cooperate to set higher oil prices (lines 39−43), highlighting difficult political relations, so (H) can be eliminated. (J) can be eliminated for the same reason, as the authors mention the differing economic structures of these nations as an obstacle to cooperation on decreasing oil prices in lines 42−43.

15.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage notes in line 73 that the U.S. government’s decarbonization strategy “relies on replacing coal with gas.” Further, “decarbonization” is about de-carbonizing. From these, it can be inferred that the U.S. government is trying to reduce uses of carbon, as stated in (B). (A) is incorrect, as it is a confused content answer choice—the passage nowhere implies that the U.S. government prefers shale to gas as an energy source. Instead, it prefers gas to coal. (C) is incorrect since the passage mentions that the government’s decarbonization strategy has an incentive to keep “these independents alive and well” (lines 71-72). “These independents” refers to the small- to mid-sized companies mentioned in the previous paragraph, so the government is actually involved with the activities of private oil companies. (D) is also a confused content answer choice, as there is no evidence to suggest that the government is involved in coming up with creative strategies of streamlining oil production, or with streamlining oil production at all.

16.

The Correct Answer is (J) — This paragraph is discussing how investors, including Citibank, are moving away from oil due to marketplace changes, so (J) is the best answer. (F) is incorrect since Citibank was not commenting on automobiles here. (G) is incorrect as the investors are talking about moving away from oil not for environmental, but for financial, reasons; Citibank believes the prospect of economic “growth” (line 83) of oil is dim, in keeping with the finance industry as a whole, which doubts “whether oil remains attractive for investment” (lines 79−80). (H) is incorrect because the given lines do not indicate any collaboration between financial investors and the U.S. government.

17.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The final sentence of Passage B states that “it is the very same climate change imperatives that are helping to stabilize America’s oil industry in the short term that will sound its death knell in the long term.” These climate change imperatives are causing a decrease in oil’s value; this decrease is the source of the paradox, as it causes oil to be sold now, in an effort to be rid of oil in the long term. Thus, (B) is the correct answer. (A) is incorrect as while the passage mentions some investors moving away from oil, it does not touch on consumer optimism about oil. (C) is irrelevant to the paradox of financial investment mentioned in the question stem, and besides, the passage suggests that coal is not in high demand. (D) is unsupported by the evidence in the passage, because while the passage says that oil prices are going down, it does not say that oil revenues are going up.

18.

The Correct Answer is (F) — Both passages discuss the decreasing prices of oil, so (F) is correct. While Passage A touches on the potential of increased revenues for oil suppliers, Passage B does not, so (G) can be eliminated. (H) is incorrect as only Passage B touches on effects of regulation related to climate change. (J) is incorrect as only Passage A discusses the effect of oil price on demand.

19.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The Process of Elimination helps narrow answer choices here. Passage B mentions alternative natural sources of oil (A), lower financial investment in oil (B), and how climate change regulation could affect sales (C), so these can all be eliminated. (D) is correct because while Passage A discusses oil suppliers’ efforts to increase revenue, Passage B does not.

20.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Passage B focuses on how eventually, the oil industry will run its course, so (J) is most consistent with these views. (F) is incorrect because Passage B indicates that demand for oil will not be unchangeable, but will become even lower and eventually non-existent. (G) is irrelevant, as it does not respond to the question posed in the stem about price, cost, and demand. There is not enough evidence in Passage B to support the idea of a government ban, so (H) can be eliminated as well.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This option best captures both the author’s enthusiasm for jazz and the changes that the author tracks through jazz’s history. The author takes a respectful and intrigued tone in the passage, so (B) and (D) can be eliminated as too negative. (A) can be eliminated as the author focuses on all of the changes that jazz went through in its history, and would thus not characterize jazz as “largely uniform through its short history.”

22.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Use the Process of Elimination in order to determine the answer. The passage focuses on the history of jazz, so (F) can be eliminated immediately. While discussing jazz’s history, the author also touches on popular jazz artists and different branches within jazz, so (G) and (H) can be eliminated as well. (J) is correct as the sales of jazz records is not specifically touched on in the passage.

23.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage discusses the history of jazz chronologically; of the answer choices, the cultural center of Storyville is mentioned first, in lines 22−26, so (B) is the correct answer. Modal jazz, pop music, and the Swing Era are all mentioned later in the passage, so (A), (C), and (D) can all be eliminated.

24.

The Correct Answer is (G) — “Hard bop” is mentioned in line 68 as a form of jazz that integrated R&B, Gospel, and Blues influences into jazz, making (G) correct. (F), (H), and (J) can all be eliminated, since none of these forms of jazz are mentioned as having these influences.

25.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Lines 15−16 mention how musical trends in New Orleans fused “elements of West African musical traditions with European harmonic structures.” This music was a precursor to jazz, so (C) is correct. (A) is incorrect as it is not concerned with early precursors to jazz. (B) can be eliminated as irrelevant and unsupported; the passage does not say that the precursors to jazz were influenced by New Orleans art generally, or West African culture generally. (D) is incorrect as R&B music is only mentioned later in the passage, and classical music is not mentioned as an early influencer of jazz.

26.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Here, “unprecedented” refers to the number of black and non-black audiences that jazz was brought to. Thus, it is closest in meaning to a word that means large and never-before-seen. (J), “record,” is closest to this meaning. (F) and (H) are out-of-scope answer choices that do not refer to a large number. (G) is also incorrect as the correct meaning is closer to large, rather than “exclusive,” which suggests exclusion of people, not growing numbers.

27.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, “exempt from the ban” is used to indicate that vocalists were allowed to make new recordings, unlike instrumental musicians. Thus, (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect as the paragraph is not talking about performance in bars, but about recordings. (C) is incorrect as imported music is not discussed here. (D) is incorrect as the passage does not say that the ban prevented jazz instrumental musicians from selling their work—rather, it prevented them from making new recordings.

28.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The passage shows that since only vocalists were exempt from the ban, people became accustomed to vocal music, and vocal music experienced a surge, making (H) correct. (F) is incorrect as vocal music, not jazz, boomed. (G) is incorrect as the ban did not affect bebop trends. (J) is incorrect as the passage does not suggest that live performances became the new focus of musicians.

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Free jazz is mentioned in line 88, and is mentioned as a type of jazz that encouraged musicians “to play without being constrained by ideas of Western harmonic and melodic conventions” (lines 90−93). (B) best captures this meaning. (A) is incorrect as it takes the phrase “free jazz” too literally and is unsupported by the passage. (C) is incorrect as the passage does not mention collaborations of these artists with musicians in other genres. (D) is incorrect as vocalists are not focused on in relation to free jazz.

30.

The Correct Answer is (F) — The author mentions Filles de Kilamanjaro in line 99, as an example of a work that utilized new trends and innovations such as electronic instruments and funk (lines 93−95), so (F) is correct. (G) is incorrect as the trends are connected to electronic instruments and funk, not classical music; moreoever, “classical jazz” is not a concept of the passage. (H) is incorrect since the work’s popularity is not discussed. (J) is incorrect as the passage also does not discuss the reception of the work.

31.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, “lifestyle factors” is used in the sense of items that may affect how the brain changes with age. In the context of the passage, (A) makes the most sense, since diet and exercise could affect aging and diet and exercise are mentioned in the final two paragraphs as factors that improve the cognition of aging dogs. Use the Process of Elimination to eliminate other options. (B), “memory and cognition,” are both functions of the brain, not lifestyle factors that affect it. (C) is incorrect as sleep and stress are nowhere touched upon in the passage. (D) is incorrect because although physical activity is mentioned, strength and endurance are not specifically mentioned.

32.

The Correct Answer is (F) — The early part of the passage discusses how Alzheimer’s can cause “changes in the ability to communicate, losses in language, decreased ability to focus and to pay attention, impairments in judgment, and other behavioral changes” (lines 7−11). Thus, (F) is the best answer. (G) is incorrect as the passage does not indicate Alzheimer’s would lead to a massive stroke. (H) is incorrect as Alzheimer’s, according to the passage, can cause certain cognitive changes, but not necessarily the loss of childhood memories. (J) is incorrect as speech changes are mentioned, but not to the specific level noted in (J), making this answer choice out of scope.

33.

The Correct Answer is (A) — While mice are implanted with specific genes that only occur in less than 5% of Alzheimer’s patients, dogs show age-related changes that mirror humans’ age-related cognitive changes, and thus may be more promising for studying Alzheimer’s. So, (A) is the best answer. (B) is incorrect; the passage does not imply that because dogs are mammals, they suffer from the same diseases as humans in general, and in any case, mice are mammals as well. (C) is incorrect as the passage states that dogs undergo similar cognitive changes as humans when they age. (D) is incorrect as the passage does not discuss the relative life spans of dogs and mice.

34.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Lines 94−97 notes that dogs provided with exercise, social enrichment, and brain games showed improved cognition when they aged. Memory-related tasks approximate brain games, and shifting the cognitive impairment to a later age constitutes improved cognition, so (H) is the correct answer. The passage notes that scientists tested whether diets rich in vitamins E and C would affect cognition, but this is separate from tests that involved cognition games, so (F) can be eliminated. (G) is incorrect as spatial memory is not the same as generally improved cognition, and involving humans and being outside are not mentioned in any of the summarized experiments. Thus, this answer is not similar enough to the improved cognition discussed in the passage to provide further support for it. (J) is incorrect because this answer choice only tells of dogs that happen to perform well, not about the later cognitive effects of engaging in brain games vs. not engaging in brain games. Therefore, (J) does not necessarily support the idea that brain games can improve cognition.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 7−11 mention that Alzheimer’s can cause “changes in the ability to communicate, losses in language, decreased ability to focus and to pay attention, impairments in judgment, and other behavioral changes.” Thus, using the Process of Elimination, (A), (B), and (C) can all be eliminated, leaving (D). (D) is not mentioned in the passage since Alzheimer’s causes impairments, not improvements, in language, so (D) is the correct answer.

36.

The Correct Answer is (F) — Lines 40−43 mention that senile plaques are made of a protein called beta-amyloid, so (F) is the correct answer. (G), (H), and (J) can all be eliminated because they are not mentioned in the passage as things that make up senile plaques.

37.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Lines 58−64 describe an experiment where dogs, in a cognition test, are trained to learn that one of two items has a food reward hidden behind it, and then to choose between these items to locate the food reward. So, (C) is the correct answer. Although the dogs were distinguishing between objects, they were not distinguishing among numerous objects, but rather between two objects at a time, so (A) can be eliminated. Dogs were relying on cognitive abilities rather than scent, so (B) can be eliminated. (D) is incorrect as the dogs were not given verbal commands in this experiment.

38.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The author discusses, in the final paragraphs, lifestyle modifications and their potential positive effects of helping to relieve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s, so (H) is the best answer. (F) is out-of-scope, as the author never suggests that Alzheimer’s can be outright cured. (G) is incorrect, as the focus of the passage is on Alzheimer’s, not on the similarity in cognition between dogs and humans. (J) is also incorrect as it is out-of-scope; the buildup of plaque in dogs’ brains is only a detail and not important to the main hypothesis proposed by the passage.

39.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In line 80, the word “translate” is used to describe approaches that can be applied to helping people experience healthy aging. (B) best captures this meaning. It does not make sense that these approaches were “changed” (A), “transformed” (C), or “decoded” (D) to healthy aging in humans, so all these choices can be eliminated.

40.

The Correct Answer is (G) — Line 64 mentions that in the cognition test, researchers measured the “number of errors” dog made, so (G) is the best answer. (F) and (J) do not refer to errors and can be eliminated. (H) is incorrect as the number of errors was connected to attempts dogs made before finding the reward, not giving up on the task.