1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage describes how David’s father jokingly chased David around pretending to cut his hair and ears, usually preceding an actual trip to the barber’s. Since David’s father is not serious, (C) is the best answer. Only the barber is described as cutting David’s hair, so (A) and (B) can be eliminated. The passage indicates that the scene depicted, of the father accompanying David to the barber’s, is a “routine” (line 8) for the family, so it is David’s father who usually takes him to the barber, eliminating (D) as well.

2.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Here, the narrator describes how David would sometimes cry after getting “excited” by the chase, worried that his father would actually snip off his ears. (J), “frightened,” is thus the best answer. (F) and (G) are too positive and thus incorrect. (H) is incorrect as it is too aggressive, as David is scared instead of enraged by his father’s antics.

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — David mentions that though his father can make each step creak, he cannot, annoying him. It can thus be inferred that he is upset by this because he wants to emulate his father and cannot, as stated in (A). David does not otherwise seem irritable during the passage, so (B) can be eliminated as it is an unsupported generalization. (C) is unsupported by the passage, as there is no evidence to suggest David hopes to be tall and athletic. (D) is also unsupported by the passage; though logical, there is no evidence to suggest that David likes the noise made by the creaking steps themselves.

4.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Throughout the passage, David thinks fondly of his father and strives to be like him, such as when he tries to make the stairs creak, or when he reacts with excitement to the idea that he soon could use the same chair as his father when David gets his hair cut. Thus, (H) is the best answer. (F) and (G) are not positive enough, and thus incorrect. (J) is incorrect because it is too extreme—even though the passage describes a moment when David would become excited and fearful of one of his father’s games, his overall attitude towards his father is not reverent or afraid.

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Before the given lines, all of the other men in the shop nod in agreement to the barber’s statement that children don’t stay young for long. David nods in agreement, not because he has direct knowledge of this, but because he is copying the men’s movements, making (B) correct. This fits with David’s overall reverence toward his father and the older men in the story. (A) is incorrect because David is too young to have any opinion on the barber’s insight. (C) is incorrect as David does not nod because he is lost in thought, but because he is responding to the men’s movements. (D) is incorrect because David’s nodding has nothing to do with the process of his hair cut, nor does the passage suggest that Mr. Samuels has paused cutting his hair.

6.

The Correct Answer is (J) — David has been to Mr. Samuels’ barbershop many times, as can be seen from Mr. Samuels’ familiarity with David and his father, and the line “David loves the barbershop—it’s like nowhere else he goes” (lines 22−23), which suggests that he has been there often before. David still expresses excitement about the barbershop, making (J) the best option. (F) and (H) can be eliminated as the barber shop is not a new location for David. (G) can be eliminated as the passage does not suggest that David finds the barber shop dull; on the contrary, he is in awe of much of the setting.

7.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The repetition in these lines is used to describe Mr. Samuels’ repeated movements and familiarity with the process of cutting hair, so (C) is the best answer. (A) is too literal and can be eliminated. There is no evidence to suggest that Mr. Samuels uses “expressive” movements when cutting hair, so (B) can be eliminated as well. (D) is incorrect as there is also no evidence in the passage to indicate that Mr. Samuels grows sleepy while cutting David’s hair.

8.

The Correct Answer is (J) — The passage describes David’s hair falling “with the same softness as snow” in line 64; this comparison refers to the lightness of each item when falling (J). The narrator is not comparing their colors (F), temperatures (G), or amounts (H), instead focusing on how they both drift softly to the ground.

9.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, the contrast between “thick-skinned” and “gently” are meant to suggest that David’s father is larger and stronger than David, and treats his son with gentleness. This in turn highlights David’s father’s strength and maturity in comparison to David, making (A) the best option. The description is not meant to suggest that David’s father is tough (B), as his father’s larger hands do not indicate any physical toughness or mental resilience, nor is it meant to suggest that David’s father is the opposite, weak (D). Since a contrast between David’s father and David is set up here, (C) can also be eliminated.

10.

The Correct Answer is (F) — Though the author does not explicit state why David’s father is holding a lock of his hair, a few potential reasons could be inferred. David’s father could have saved some of David’s hair for sentimental reasons, knowing the fleetingness of this stage of David’s childhood, as discussed earlier in the passage. Thus, (G) and (H) are both plausible and can be eliminated. (J) is plausible as David’s father might have saved the piece of hair as a souvenir of an enjoyable father-son outing. (F) is not plausible, however, as it is too broad—there is no evidence that David’s father becomes attached to items in general. Since (F) is the only option that is not plausible, it is the correct answer.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage is not neutral. While it starts by providing factual information about the history and current state of the U.S. patent system, it builds toward a claim. This claim is that while the American patent system was initially meant to be an improvement on the European system, it would now benefit from reform, specifically by responding to public concerns. (C) is thus the most logical answer. (A) is incorrect as the author is somewhat critical of the current U.S. patent system. (B) is incorrect as there is only one European patent system discussed—the pan-European patent system—and while the author does compare it to the U.S. system, this is not the main purpose of the passage. (D) can also be eliminated because the article is not a generalized statement on how patent systems fail to satisfy public demands—only two patent systems are described in the passage, and indeed, one of them (the pan-European patent system) does satisfy public demands.

12.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Lines 1−14 discuss the effects of the early U.S. patent system, mentioning how application fees were kept low (F) and how economic growth resulted (G). Lines 18−22 note how this approach has “gone global” as other countries adopted similar systems (J). The passage does not mention, however, any championing of a few select inventors by this early patent system; in fact, it characterizes the system as making entrepreneurship “a possibility for every citizen” (lines 9-10). So only (H) is unsupported by the passage, and is therefore the correct answer.

13.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Here, “buoyed” refers to the patent approach that is supported by international legal agreements, so (B) is the best option. (A) is too literal. It does not make sense to say that an approach to patents is “uplifted” (C) or “emboldened” (D); these terms are more evocative of the triumphs of individuals or groups of people, not of an aspect of law.

14.

The Correct Answer is (G) — In lines 32−41, the passage mentions that in regards to the current U.S. patent system, health care professionals believe “patents had led to expensive and low-quality genetic tests available only through one company” (lines 35-37), and small farmers believe patents “speed up big-company control of agriculture” (lines 38-39). Thus, both health care professionals and small farmers are concerned with the accumulation of patents (and power) by a very small number of groups, making (G) the best option. (F) is exactly opposite, and can be eliminated. (H) is incorrect, and confuses content; neither group focuses on philosophical ideas such as guaranteed natural rights—this is more akin to the concerns of other groups mentioned in the fifth paragraph. (J) is also incorrect, because even though the environment is mentioned in passing in relation to small farmers, the key grievances of these and of health professionals are business interests, and not the environment.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The paragraphs here focus on protests and complaints against the U.S. patent system, making (D) the best choice. They are focused on the current U.S. patent system, not citizens living in or the patent system of the late 18th and 19th century, so (A) can be eliminated. (B) is incorrect, as the passage uses these paragraphs to show people’s concerns with the current U.S. patent system, not to suggest that the current U.S. patent system honors the principles of the earlier U.S. patent system. (C) is incorrect, because while one group, health care professionals, may have issues with the patent system, the passage does not suggest that the U.S. patent system and medicine are “fundamentally incompatible,” and matters relating to medicine are only a small portion of these paragraphs.

16.

The Correct Answer is (G) — Lines 51−56 describe the views of patent system officials and lawyers, who feel that criticisms leveled at the current patent system are “seriously missing the point,” since patents govern the recognition of inventions and do not extend to concerns raised about managing business interests or humanity’s relationship with nature or the environment. Thus, (G) is the best answer. (F) is incorrect as the passage does not mention officials and lawyers discussing improvements to the passage system, or the length of time such improvements would take. (H) is incorrect as again, neither group offers a suggested method for how critics should voice their concerns. Finally, (J) is incorrect as it is too extreme; stating that moral concerns are irrelevant to law is much more broad than arguing that some concerns about the patent system misunderstand its goals.

17.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The “it” in line 68 refers to the pan-European patent system, which has listened to citizens’ concerns and taken them into account for its policies. Thus, (A) is the best choice, encapsulating how the pan-European system is engaging with and responding to concerns. (B) and (C) are too literal and suggest physical tactility, and are thus incorrect. (D) does not make sense in context, since the patent system is not being described as sentient, or “conscious.”

18.

The Correct Answer is (G) — Throughout the passage, the author describes the different types of patent systems with interest and offers her opinion that the current U.S. patent system could learn from the pan-European patent system and respond better to public concerns. However, the author is interested rather than passionate, showing different sides of the debate and displaying information before offering her thoughts. (G) is thus the best option. (F) and (H) both imply a more intense tone than the author takes, while (J) misses the author’s engaged interest in the topic.

19.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In lines 76−81, the author notes that the pan-European system istoday, “far ahead of the U.S. patent system in terms of its public engagement and its attention to the issues that citizens care about.” (A) is therefore the best answer. (B) is incorrect, as the author, after noting similarities in the systems, proceeds to contrast them. (C) and (D) can both be eliminated, since the author speaks positively and not negatively about the pan-European patent system and its efficiency in engaging the public.

20.

The Correct Answer is (H) — Here, the author makes this suggestion to support the idea that the U.S. public should have a say in the patent system, so (H) is the best answer. The author is not concerned with non-American politicians, so (F) can be eliminated. The author also nowhere suggests that the U.S. patent system should be more difficult to decipher, eliminating (G). (J) can be eliminated as the author does not make a connection between the patent system in the U.S. and the government’s speeches. The question may look daunting at first, but all of the incorrect answer choices are clearly unsupported, making Process of Elimination a good approach.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage focuses on Picasso’s sculptures, describing his little-known prowess in this area of art. (C) is therefore the best answer. Though the passage praises Picasso’s sculptures, it is not concerned with arguing or proving that the sculptures are better than Picasso’s paintings, so (A) can be eliminated. (B) is incorrect as, while the passage touches on some of the sales of Picasso’s sculptures, it is not the focus of the passage, so the choice is too narrow. (D) is also too narrow to be correct; though some specific Picasso’s sculptures are discussed, the author’s point was not merely to describe a selection of Picasso’s individual sculptures.

22.

The Correct Answer is (F) — The author praises Picasso’s sculptures, noting that “sculpture was a medium where the artist could experiment freely” (lines 52−53) and the “critics’ glowing reception” (line 85) of an exhibition featuring these sculptures. (F) is the best choice here. (G) and (H) are too negative, and (J) is too detached, and connotes being merely entertained, missing the strong positive feelings and analytic interest the author expresses towards the sculptures.

23.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The author notes in lines 28−29 that “one reason Picasso’s sculptures remain a mystery to many is that the artist was averse to selling them,” which is best summarized by (B). The author praises Picasso’s sculptures, and does not suggest they are inferior to his paintings, so (A) can be eliminated. (C) is incorrect because the passage cites Picasso’s own caginess about his sculptures, rather than critics’ opinions, as the reason for their less widespread popularity. (D) is unsupported by the passage, which does not discuss the number of exhibits open to displaying sculptures vs. the number of exhibits unwilling to display sculptures.

24.

The Correct Answer is (G) — The given lines note that, while Picasso was trained as a painter and made most of his money in that medium, he could experiment more freely in sculpture, since not as many expectations were placed on him there, making (G) the best option. (F) is incorrect; though the passage indicates that Picasso did not widely submit his sculptures and may have had some trepidation about their value, the passage itself does not suggest that his sculptures were less worthy of consumption, or less ready for criticism, than his paintings. (H) is incorrect as the lines note that Picasso’s sculptures were less, not more, lucrative (meaning profitable). (J) is incorrect as the given lines do not discuss how much time and energy Picasso applied to his sculptures as opposed to his paintings.

25.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The given lines are describing how Picasso sent out his sculptures to a larger exhibition for the first time, making (C) the best choice. Picasso did not destroy his sculptures but rather sent them off, so (A) can be eliminated. (B) is incorrect because the passage does not suggest that Picasso’s sculptures sold in large numbers after the exhibition. (D) is incorrect as the referenced lines are describing Picasso’s sharing of his sculptures, which does not relate to and if anything runs counter to the idea that he decided to focus primarily on paintings.

26.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Lines 57−65 describe how, unlike traditional methods of sculpture that involved “chiseling away” at material, Picasso used fusion of existing material to build his sculptures. (J) is therefore correct. (F) is incorrect as the passage does not give enough information to suggest that Picasso’s sculptures focused on everyday as opposed to religious subjects, nor does it suggest this is how Picasso’s sculptures differed from others. (G) is incorrect as Picasso fused different materials together; the description of converting a block of material into something new is more reminiscent of traditional sculpture methods. (H) is incorrect as the passage does not suggest that Picasso incorporated paintings into his displays of sculptures.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — “Glowing” here is used to describe the critics’ reception of Picasso’s work at the New York exhibition, making (B), “positive,” the best choice. (A), (C), and (D) are all too literal interpretations of “glowing,” with connotations that make them closer to descriptions of light.

28.

The Correct Answer is (F) — The final paragraph describes how some of Picasso’s early paintings were widely panned, or ridiculed, before growing in fame, and then suggests that even if Picasso’s sculptures are not accepted at first, they may still find recognition later on. Thus, (F) is the correct answer. (G) is incorrect as it is too extreme; the author does not suggest that this transition from obscurity to fame will become a cycle that lasts for a long time. (H) is incorrect as the tone of the paragraph is more positive, noting that Picasso’s paintings found fame after initial ridicule, and predicting that Picasso’s sculptures will also come to be admired. (J) is incorrect as the author notes that Picasso’s paintings did not achieve widespread fame at first.

29.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Refer back to the line where “astronomical” is used, and see if you can use Prediction to come up with an explanation of why it was used. The word “astronomical” here is used to indicate that the sale price was very high, making (A) the best answer. (B) is incorrect as it is too extreme; the passage does not indicate that the sculpture sold for a price higher than any other piece at the Museum of Modern Art. (C) makes a judgment on the work not supported by the passage; the passage merely suggests that the price is high, not incommensurate with the piece’s quality. (D) is unsupported by the passage, which does not indicate that the price was unsustainable and fell through.

30.

The Correct Answer is (G) — The passage is generally supportive and positive about Picasso’s sculptures, noting that even though they are not widely known, they still have a large amount of merit, particularly for their innovative qualities. (G) is thus the best answer. (F) is incorrect as “shocking” and “overpraised” are too negative to fit the tone of the passage. The passage does not suggest that Picasso’s paintings are conventional, meaning ordinary, so (H) can be eliminated. (J) is incorrect as the passage notes the expensive price of one of Picasso’s sculptures, and also their relative obscurity.

31.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage starts by identifying the idea of enhancing a plant’s natural immune system to fight pathogens. It then moves into a description of how priming plants can protect them, by creating a defense memory and response, increasing tolerance to infection, and inducing a prolonged primed state. The purpose of the passage is to discuss these benefits of priming, so (B) is the correct answer. (A) is incorrect because while the passage says at the end that priming would be a great tool in sustainable agriculture, the passage is not concerned with promoting sustainable agricultural techniques in general. (C) is incorrect because the passage does not go into detail about pathogens attaching themselves to plants, nor is this the purpose of the passage; moreover, to say pathogens “attract” plants would be somewhat strange. (D) is incorrect because the passage mentions pesticides in the first paragraph, but only as a note of how priming may make pesticides less necessary.

32.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The first paragraph of the passage is dedicated to introducing priming as a method to aid plants in defending against pathogens. The terms “war,” “fight off,” and “invaders” illustrate the intense conflict between plants and the pathogens, showing that plants experience high stakes in defending themselves. (H) is thus correct. (F) is incorrect, because the first paragraph and the passage as a whole do not discuss violence among different plant species. (G) is incorrect because it is too literal—the war-like imagery is not meant to suggest that the scientists’ research has implications for the military. (J) is incorrect because it is too specific and unsupported, as the first paragraph does not actually detail or hint at pathogens’ inner machinery.

33.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The word “novel” in line 1 refers to the research described in this passage. The first paragraph shows that this research is new, as it suggests that this research could change how plants are handled, so (A) is the correct answer. (B) and (C) are incorrect, as the passage does not have to do with literature or storytelling. (D) is also incorrect, because the use of the word “novel” in the sentence is not meant to highlight that the research is one of a kind, but rather that it is emerging.

34.

The Correct Answer is (F) — In the third paragraph, the passage states that one of the main goals of the research was to harness pathogens’ patterns to prime plants’ immune systems and thus help them protect against these pathogens. (F) is therefore correct. (G) is incorrect because the author states in the third paragraph that the research into plant priming is meant to create defenses that make traditional chemical control methods (for example, pesticides) unneeded. (H) is incorrect because the passage does not mention the research differentiating the susceptibilities of different plant pathogens to viruses—in fact, the research does not mention plant pathogens being susceptible to viruses at all. (J) is incorrect because the study of plants passing defense memory to their descendants is a feature not of the study described in this passage, but of a different study mentioned briefly in the final paragraph.

35.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The first, second, and third paragraphs of the passage show that research has been done on how to manipulate plant genes to make plants more nutrient rich, making (C) the correct answer. (A) is incorrect because the passage does not show scientists concerned about getting plants to take up nutrients at all, but rather with enhancing plants’ nutrient density. (B) is incorrect as there is no evidence that scientists are concerned about helping farmers make money. (D) is incorrect because while the passage mentions manipulating plant genes to make plants “able to better fight pests” (line 73), it does not specifically mention predators, and certainly does not mention or allude to birds.

36.

The Correct Answer is (J) — After introducing the idea that manipulating plant genes can help make plants more nutrient rich, the author brings up the common problems of iron and zinc deficiency. He then proposes that genetic modification can increase the amount of these minerals in plants. So, the example of these deficiencies is there to demonstrate one potential area where genetic manipulation may be helpful, (J). (F) is incorrect because the author is hopeful about the potential of genetic modifications of plants in addressing these hunger issues. (H) is incorrect because the author never mentions his own research, and indeed does not mention any research into vitamin uptake. (G) is incorrect because this example is not intended to convey that plants inherently suffer from a lack of iron, zinc, or any other nutrient; rather, the example is meant to convey that people suffer from a lack of these nutrients, and that densifying plants with nutrients can help.

37.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The final paragraph of the passage says that researchers have been experimenting with gene modification for plants, and that plant breeding (as opposed to genetic modification) has not been fast enough to keep up with the demand for food. The author then ties this all together by saying that it is important to understand the process of gene modification before making decisions. This all points to the idea that scientists must carefully study genetic modification of plants, making (C) the correct answer. (A) is incorrect because the final paragraph does not mention any, let alone a variety, of defenses against pathogens. (B) is incorrect because while the final paragraph mentions the world’s increasing demand for food, it does not argue that global hunger is the most pressing issue of the modern era, and provisions for gene modification, not hunger itself, is the subject of this paragraph. Finally, (D) is incorrect because the paragraph does not explain any mechanisms behind recent developments in genome editing. Since all of the incorrect answers for this question are either clearly unsupported or extreme, Process of Elimination is a good strategy for this question.

38.

The Correct Answer is (H) — The word “ferry” in line 68 refers to the action of membrane transporters in plants, as they help move and distribute nutrients in plants. (H) is therefore the correct answer. (F) is incorrect because “ship,” as in send items between disparate locations, does not match the context. The term “ship” implies the planned transport of an item (or person) to another place; it does not make sense to suggest plants consciously plan for the moving of nutrients. (G) is incorrect because it does not capture the meaning of something being moved between places. (J) is incorrect because it suggests independent movement, rather than the correct meaning of transporting something else; it does not make sense to say membrane transporters “travel” nutrients.

39.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The author of Passage A describes the benefits of priming plants to pathogen patterns, and calls the method “valuable and promising” (lines 59-60). The author of Passage B similarly outlines the potential benefits of genetic modification of plants for the purposes of increasing nutrient density and disrupting pathogen manipulation. Both authors thus view potential modifications of plants favorably, (B). (A) and (C) are negative, which is opposite to the authors’ attitudes, and therefore incorrect. (D), “joyously,” is too positive and off in tone; both authors display reasoned optimism rather than exuberant happiness about their subjects, with Passage B even qualifying its positive view of gene modification with a recommendation that the science of it must be understood before any “rash judgments” are made (line 105).

40.

The Correct Answer is (J) — Passage A discusses priming as a method of manipulating plants to protect against pathogens. Passage B, in its fourth and fifth paragraphs, discusses manipulating genes in plants to fight pathogens. Thus, (J) is correct. (F) is incorrect because although both passages discuss, either overtly or subtly, the impact of plant modification on the food supply, only Passage B discusses genetic modification—nowhere in Passage A does it say that priming is a form of genetic modification. (G) and (H) are incorrect because again, Passage A does not necessarily discuss genetic modification, and more, neither passage mentions policies or economic considerations.