1.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The majority of the passage is dedicated to an account of the search for Mark and the concerned reactions of Audrey, Elsie, and Mrs. Stevens to a mysterious gunshot. (B) is incorrect because nobody actually sees a rabbit hunt; Audrey merely thinks that the gunshot was part of such a hunt. (C) is incorrect because although the first paragraph does describe “the Temple,” Mark’s summerhouse, there’s nothing in the passage about Mark criticizing his employees. (D) is incorrect because, while the housemaids do hear a gunshot and hide in a bedroom, they don’t appear to be hiding from Mark.

2.

The Correct Answer is (C) — An “omniscient observer,” is the best way to describe the narrator. This passage isn’t clearly written from any single perspective; the narrator has access to Audrey’s thoughts (e.g. l. 20-26) as well as Elsie’s (l. 65-66), but doesn’t use the first person at all. Thus, we can assume that the narrator isn’t a character in the passage, but an omniscient, or all-seeing, observer. (A) is incorrect because the narrator is neither obviously physically present for the events described nor clearly frightened. (B) is incorrect because “meticulous analyst” suggests a person who’s actively trying to solve something; this is not true of the narrator, who merely reports without analyzing. (D) is incorrect because there’s no evidence that the narrator is either bored or a guest at the house.

3.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In context, “retiring” is used to describe Mark going to the office after leaving from the Temple to “put his thoughts upon paper” (l. 5). The best answer choice is thus “retreating,” which conveys the idea of going towards a place of privacy and seclusion. (A) is incorrect because “deteriorating” suggests falling apart, or getting worse, but there is no evidence that anything negative happens when Mark goes to write in his office. (C) is incorrect because the word “discharging” tends to mean either setting something off (like a weapon) or formally removing someone from a position (as in the military expression, “honorable discharge”). In the context of Mark’s work habits, neither of these words describe what is taking place in the passage. (D) is incorrect because to “surrender” means to yield to an opposing power, which is not present in this part of the passage.

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, “ordinary” describes the behavior of certain houseguests, behavior that Mark views as “careless”, and that causes him to feel “pained” (lines 10-11). It therefore means “distasteful” in the sense of rude or uncouth. (A) is incorrect because the word “natural” tends to mean something that is have either a neutral or a positive connotation, whereas the actions of the houseguests here are negative. (B) is incorrect because there is no evidence that the activities are “boring” in context. (D) is incorrect because “commonplace” suggests something that happens frequently and without obstruction; there is no indication that the Temple is often used for these kinds of activities, and surrounding negative words like “carelessly” and “offenders” strongly suggest that Mark views “flirtation and smoking” as specifically negative.

5.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In lines 10-11, Mark is said to feel “a little pained when a visitor treats the Temple carelessly,” and then the narrator provides three examples of what Mark deems to be inappropriate or “careless” use of the Temple: flirtation, smoking, and playing hand-tennis. Once Mark asks two guests playing hand-tennis in The Temple to play somewhere else, there is little doubt that he views the Temple as a place for writing (as in line 5) and not for rowdy or social activities. (A) is incorrect because although the passage indicates that some guests were never invited to The Red House again after playing hand-tennis in the Temple, there is no indication that the Temple was off-limits to guests and visitors. (B) is incorrect because there is never any mention of the Temple’s appearance or how Mark feels about this, therefore there is no evidence to support any opinion Mark might have on how the Temple looks, or how up-to-date it is. (C) is incorrect because no family members of Mark’s have been mentioned yet, so it is impossible to infer that part of Mark’s property has been reserved for this reason.

6.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The quoted portion follows the information that Mark likes to meditate in the Temple, but condemns those who participate in more rowdy activities there, proving that Mark sees the Temple as primarily for quiet activities. (A) is incorrect because the portion merely describes where the Temple is located. (C) is incorrect because the quoted portion is about the specific behavior of two guests, not Mark’s feelings about the Temple. (D) is incorrect because the quoted portion relates to Audrey’s search for Mark rather than his feelings about the Temple.

7.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The line, “Bangs and explosions and terrible things” raises a new possibility in the story, that of a violent or dangerous act “inside the house” (lines 46-47) taking place instead of the rabbit hunts the maids are used to hearing. (A) is incorrect because there’s no evidence in the passage of Mrs. Stevens’ extensive knowledge of guns. (B) is incorrect because the passage doesn’t take a stance against hunting, and Mrs. Stevens isn’t referring to hunting. (C) is incorrect because there is no evidence anywhere in the passage that Mrs. Stevens is involved with any crime.

8.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The evidence in lines 52-61 suggests that Audrey and Mrs. Stevens think Mark’s brother is suspicious and impolite. He is called “rude” and Mrs. Stevens states that “there [is] no use speaking with anyone from Australia.” Further evidence comes from the correct answer to question 9. (B) is incorrect because there’s no evidence for the brother’s wealth. (C) is incorrect because the things Audrey and Mrs. Stevens say about the brother directly contradict this idea. (D) is incorrect because, once again, the two women do not actually say these things about the brother.

9.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, Audrey recounts her first reaction to the brother, which is that he seemed like a “bad lot.” (A) is incorrect because the passage doesn’t relate to the brother directly; it merely indicates that Elsie was frightened. (B) is incorrect because the portion states that it sounded like the men were shooting rabbits, but again does not relate to the brother. (D) is incorrect because the statement relates to Mrs. Steven’s feeling of fear rather than her direct assessment of the brother’s character.

10.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Elsie responds to Mrs. Steven’s statement of fear with her own needs in mind; in other words, she is not focused on the current, potentially dangerous situation. (B) is incorrect; it may be true of Elsie, but it is not the focus of the scene, and there is no evidence that it is true of the other housemaids. (C) is incorrect because there’s no evidence here of Elsie’s “initiative,” meaning special preparedness or alertness. (D) is incorrect because physical appearances aren’t the focus of the scene.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage’s focus is to investigate the hypothesis that plastic which smells like DMS causes seabirds to mistake it for food. (A) is incorrect because the author only vilifies DMS by explaining that it indirectly causes more plastic consumption, not that it is dangerous (chemically or otherwise) on its own; in fact, under normal circumstances, DMS seems to be an important signal for tube-nosed seabirds that there is food nearby, as in lines 49-51. (B) is incorrect because the author only mentions seabird species going extinct briefly in one paragraph,so extending this idea to all species is an extreme conclusion that the passage does not reach for. (D) is incorrect because although the author indicates that studying DMS has helped his understanding of seabirds, the passage never claims that this knowledge is applicable to marine life in general.

12.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This option is centered around ingesting something dangerous because it is mistaken for food, which matches the problematic behavior of the seagulls. (B) is incorrect because the subject knowingly alters his diet to improve his health, while the seagulls in the passage are not aware their diet is changing, and even if they were, this change is detrimental to their health, not beneficial. (C) is incorrect because the harmful food is being eaten even though the subject knows it is harmful, while the seagulls are ignorant of the harm their diet is causing them. (D) is incorrect because the seagulls are unfortunately not fearful of eating plastic.

13.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author explains the biofouling process in line 70 before stating that it produces DMS, which matches the statement this answer option makes. (A) is incorrect because the passage claims that plastic gets its DMS-smell from algae coating it, which has nothing to do with the nature of the plastic itself. (B) is incorrect because the passage does not offer any information about why krill or other seabird prey ingest plastic. (D) is incorrect because the passage explains that plastic smells like DMS specifically when it is submerged in water and coated with algae, so it wouldn’t make sense to assume that “all” plastic smells like DMS.

14.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This quote states that the plastic submerged in water by the author was coated with algae (which, as the author states, are instrumental in the biofouling process) and contained large amounts of DMS, which backs up the claim of the correct answer to the previous question. (A) is incorrect because it explains what happens to plastic at sea, not how it relates to the biofouling process or DMS, which the previous question’s correct answer claims. (B) is not correct because a list of seabird prey and a claim that perhaps seabirds think plastic looks like their prey is not related to biofouling or DMS. (C) cannot be correct because this quote specifies that seabirds are attracted to the krill eating algae, not the algae themselves, instead of discussing the production of DMS.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The fact that seabirds are going extinct functions as reasoning for why their ingestion of plastic is a serious issue, because the author communicates that consumption of plastic is deadly for seabirds, for example in lines 8–11. (A) is incorrect because nowhere in the passage does the author communicate any feelings of concern towards endangered species in general. (B) is incorrect because the author never explores why animals generally go extinct, and the mere mention of one species’ near extinction is not enough to infer the author’s beliefs about extinction on such a broad level. (C) is incorrect because expressing that tube-nosed seabirds are at risk of extinction does not independently lead to a reason why they are going extinct, which this option states.

16.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The author conducts his experiment of submerging plastic in the ocean, which he hypothesizes will attract algae and algae-grazers, and then tests to see if it smells like DMS. His results match his hypothesis, which lends credibility to the argument that DMS-responsive seabirds eat plastic because it smells like food. (B) and (C) are incorrect because the author never interviews any marine biologists, or introduces any academic reports on where seabirds find their food. (D) is incorrect because while the chemical composition of DMS is briefly mentioned, no actual studies are referenced.

17.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The author explicitly states in this quote how the results of his experiment support his hypothesis. (A) is incorrect because this quote only deals with an assumption about why seabirds eat plastic, which the author does not use to back up his arguments. (B) is incorrect because it only contains information about when it was discovered that certain seabirds use smell to hunt; this is not an experiment, nor does it feature results the author found that support his argument. (C) cannot be correct because this statement only describes part of the author’s process while conducting his experiment, not his results.

18.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The word “forage” in this passage describes the actions of the seabirds as they seek out food for their survival, which is synonymous with “hunt”. (A) is incorrect because in order for the seabirds to “chase” their prey, their prey would have to be running away from them, which the author never claims they do. (C) is incorrect because the seabirds are only interested in the food that is in the ocean, not curious about what the ocean contains or looks like, which “explore” implies. (D) cannot be correct because the word “ransack” implies that the seabirds are harming the ocean as they search, which the passage never describes them doing.

19.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In the context of the passage, “cue” is being used to describe the way that DMS attracts foraging seabirds; both “cue” and “signal” are actions which are used to draw attention to a wanted object or preferred action . (A) is incorrect because to “nod” usually includes the physical act of nodding your head to communicate a stance, which would be impossible for DMS to do. (C) is incorrect because “warning” means to communicate approaching danger so that others may avoid it , while “cue” is being used in this passage to signal the presence of food, which, to seabirds, is something they want to encounter, not avoid. (D) is incorrect because “suggestion” is the presentation of one possible action that is thought to be beneficial, while to “cue” is to communicate that a definite, desired behavior should take place.

20.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The darker bars, which represent the seabirds that do not detect DMS, are far smaller than the lighter bars representing the seabirds that do detect DMS, meaning they consume less plastic because of this distinction. (A) is incorrect because the graph shows that different species of seabirds consume different amounts of plastic, which opposes what this option claims. The graph does not give information about seabirds’ responsiveness to DMS over time, so (B) and (C) are incorrect.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The graph shows that DMS-responsive seabirds ingest more plastic than non-DMS-responsive seabirds, and the passage pays significant attention to how DMS is emitted by algae on plastic, attracting seabirds who will consume it. (A) is incorrect because the author states another reason seabirds ingest plastic: it looks like their prey. (B) is incorrect because the passage never discusses which DMS-responsive seabirds are best at detecting DMS. As well, the graph only shows how much plastic certain seabirds ingest, not which seabird best detects DMS. Although certain DMS-responsive species are more likely to ingest plastic than others, the graph doesn’t explain why this happens, so there is no evidence that the puffinus tenuirostris, for example, is better at detecting DMS than the Oceanodroma leucorhoa. (D) is incorrect because neither the passage nor the graph measures how far away seabirds (DMS-responsive or not) are from DMS before they can detect it, and do not make any claims about this topic.

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Chisolm clearly has strong feelings about her subject (gender equality), and she is arguing for, or advocating, a particular action (passing the Equal Rights Amendment); “passionate advocate” is a good description of someone in this position, so (B) is correct. Chisolm’s tone is too positive and forward-thinking to suggest weariness, and the solution she is advocating involves modifying the existing system, not starting over in a radical new direction, so (A) is incorrect. Chisolm is optimistic, but her tone is too sober to be labeled “excited,” and although she was a politician, she is not drawing on her experiences in the political world in this speech; thus, (C) is incorrect. Chisolm is optimistic about the benefits the amendment can bring, but she is not speaking as a scholar, so (D) is incorrect.

23.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Chisolm explicitly connects “legal discrimination between the sexes” to “outmoded views of society” and “pre-scientific beliefs” (lines 71-73); “outdated” sums up her view of those sets of beliefs, so (C) is correct. Chisolm does not at any point acknowledge any important differences between the sexes that must be protected, so (A) is incorrect. By saying legal distinctions between the sexes reflect “outmoded views of society,” Chisolm is saying they are generally not valid, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm calls discrimination against women the “most pervasive” form of prejudice (lines 5-10), so it is reasonable to infer that she considers the effects of legal distinctions between the sexes to be more than minimal; she certainly never says anything that suggests the effects of legal distinctions between the sexes are minor, so (D) is incorrect.

24.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) explicitly lays out Chisolm’s view that legal distinctions between the sexes result from outdated thinking; it aligns with both the topic and the correct answer of the previous question, so it is correct. (A) describes the extent of the problem of discrimination against women, but it does not connect that problem to outdated thinking or even to its legal permissibility under the current laws, so it is incorrect. (B) conveys the urgency of her cause, but it does not offer her opinion about the causes of the problem, so it is incorrect. (C) is a rhetorical question that invites the audience to consider a world without legal distinctions between the sexes, but it does not connect those distinctions to the outdated thinking from which they arose, so it is incorrect.

25.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Chisolm clearly condemns discrimination against women (as in, for example, lines 14-18), and she also states that it “is so widespread that it seems to many persons normal, natural, and right” (lines 9-10); “accepted but unjust” captures both of these elements, so (B) is correct. Chisolm is arguing for a method to stop discrimination against women, so although she clearly thinks it is unfortunate, she does not view it as unavoidable; thus, (A) is incorrect. Chisolm is arguing for an end to discrimination against women, so she clearly does not consider it necessary; thus, (C) is incorrect. Chisolm is arguing for a change in the laws of the country, which is necessary because current laws do permit discrimination against women; thus, she does not consider discrimination against women illegal, so (D) is incorrect even though she does consider it common.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “expression” with “assertion” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and retains essentially the same meaning, about the extent to which legally demonstrating or “asserting” prejudice on religious or political grounds has been allowed; thus, (A) is correct. Chisolm is referring to the very existence of legal manifestations of prejudice, not to the degree of their strength, as would be connoted by “intensity,” so (B) is incorrect. “Announcement” is typically used to refer to the proclamation of something new, or to a formal statement. The legal expression of prejudice described was generally neither a proclamation nor a statement but rather a regular occurrence; thus “announcement” does not make sense in this context, so (C) is incorrect. Chisolm was referring explicitly to actions, which exist externally; emotions are internal and cannot be regulated by law, so “emotion” does not make sense in the original context and (D) is incorrect.

27.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Chisolm recognizes the argument that legal methods will not end discrimination against women in the same paragraph where she says that it is “not relevant” and “no reason” to avoid changing the laws (lines 19-27); thus, (A) is correct. Chisolm’s brief discussion of the Armed Forces (lines 38-42) does not address the question of their changing demographics, and is included as an example rather than a response to another argument, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm does not compare the United States to any other countries, so (C) is incorrect. Chisolm does not mention any benefits women currently receive under the law, so (D) is incorrect.

28.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) summarizes most directly Chisolm’s acknowledgement that laws alone do not end prejudice; it aligns with both the content and the topic of the previous answer, so it is correct. (A) refers to the problem of legal allowances for discrimination, but it does not address the argument that legal changes cannot end discrimination, so it is incorrect. (C) discusses the potential legal ramifications of the amendment, but not in a context that addresses whether or not they would end discrimination against women, so it is incorrect. (D) discusses the potential economic ramifications of the amendment, which does not align with the correct answer to the previous question since that answer related to legal remedies; thus, (D) is incorrect.

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “fitted” with “suited” in the original sentence results in a sentence that makes sense and is close in meaning to the original sentence; specifically, “suited” can carry the meaning of being well-matched with a particular role which is conveyed in the original sentence. Thus, (D) is correct. “Contoured” and “shaped” suggest being physically compatible with something rather than meaning well-matched with a particular role, so (A) and (B) are incorrect. “Fixed” implies changing something rather than discussing whether it is already a good match, so (C) is incorrect.

30.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The direct effects Chisolm mentions are all minor, while the indirect effects are considerably more significant; this suggests a future in which no major upheavals occur but later generations reap great rewards, best summarized by (C). The indirect effects Chisolm mentions are significant, not small, so (A) is incorrect. Chisolm does not state that anything people currently fear may occur, so (B) is incorrect. Chisolm does not divide the effects of the amendment by which aspects of people’s lives they affect, so (D) is incorrect.