1.

The Correct Answer is (D) — At the beginning of the passage, the narrator has noted that he has just finished his studies at Oxford, and is taking a short vacation from work “before assuming definitely the management of the estate.” He goes on to say that his father and mother both died when he was young, and he is alone in the world. We can therefore eliminate (A), (B), and (C). Answer (D) correctly states that the narrator is about to take over the management of the estate.

2.

The Correct Answer is (C) — When the narrator first sees the old gentleman, he only sees the figure for a second before his vision is “apparently rectified by the comparative dusk,” and he concludes that no one was there. Therefore, answer (C), “only a momentary misperception,” is correct. Answers (A), (B), and (D) are not supported by the passage.

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To find evidence for the answer to the previous question, we can turn to the portion of the passage where the narrator first spotted the old gentleman. Answer (A) references a portion of the passage where the narrator concludes that “my optic nerves had been momentarily affected from within,” supporting the idea that the vision was a momentary misperception and making (A) the correct answer. Answers (B), (C), and (D) are all irrelevant, as none deal with the narrator’s initial conclusions about the old gentleman.

4.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Here, the narrator is using “encroaching state” to describe how the library “absorbed one room after another until it occupied the greater part of the ground floor” (lines 14-16). Thus, we can see that answer (D) is most accurate, as the library is expanding into other areas of the house. Answer (A) is incorrect as the library is growing rather than getting smaller, and (C) is incorrect as there is nothing worrisome about this growth. (B) can be eliminated as the passage states the library now takes up much of the bottom floor, not that it was originally designed to do so.

5.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Though optic nerves are mentioned in the passage, they are only brought up in reference to the narrator’s initial sighting of the old gentleman, so (A) can be eliminated. Answer (B) is unsupported by the passage, while answer (D) misinterprets another portion of the passage where the butler and narrator discuss others’ interactions with the old gentleman. Only answer (C) is correct, as the narrator reconsiders the old gentleman’s presence after finding the book missing in the same part of the library where he spotted the old gentleman earlier.

6.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In line 23, “rectified” is used by the narrator to describe how his vision seemed corrected in the different lighting of the “comparative dusk,” as he no longer sees the old gentleman. When we look at the answer choices, we see that answer (A) contains this meaning. Answers (B), (C), and (D) would not work in the original sentence.

7.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The butler shares information about the old gentleman with the narrator, and thus does not seem skeptical (B). He also does not act confused (D), which also allows you to knock out (A), as bemused is a synonym of confused. Instead, answer (C), uneasy, is the best choice, given the butler’s knowledge of the old gentleman and concerns about the story.

8.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Answers (A), (B), and (C) give no indication of the mood or reactions of the butler, but only provide information about the old gentleman or others’ sightings of him. Only answer (D) offers any hint as to the butler’s perceptions, as the butler expresses his hope to the narrator, with a troubled smile, that the visit was “but a friendly call” rather than something more sinister, showing his unease with the situation.

9.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, the butler describes how the narrator’s grandfather “would never hear a word on the matter, declaring that whoever alluded to it should be dismissed without a moment’s warning, but old Sir Ralph believed in nothing he could not see or lay hold of” (lines 55-59). We can infer here that old Sir Ralph was the name of the narrator’s grandfather and see that answer (D) is the correct choice, since Sir Ralph would not even consider the possibility of a ghost. Answers (A) and (B) directly contradict this, while answer (C) incorrectly states that Sir Ralph feared the servants leaving, when it was he that threatened to dismiss them if they spoke of the apparition.

10.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage focuses on arts administrators, including their various backgrounds and career prospects. Answers (B) and (C) are inaccurate and too narrow, while answer (D) is not discussed at all in the passage. Answer (A) is the best choice.

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Throughout the passage, the author discusses the careers of arts administrators, refuting common negative stereotypes about them and discussing challenges within arts administration. Thus, we can conclude that their attitude towards these arts administrators is not dismissive (A), amused (C), or frightened (D), but rather answer (B), supportive.

12.

The Correct Answer is (A) — To find evidence to support the previous answer, look for a portion of the passage that reveals the author’s supportive attitude towards arts administrators. Answer (A) is the best choice here, as the author discusses what must be done to help managers perform well and to entice them to remain in the field, revealing a positive, sympathetic approach to this career. The lines in answers (B), (C), and (D) merely state facts without revealing the author’s attitude towards arts administrators.

13.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Throughout the passage, the author discusses the challenges that arts administrators face. Answer (A) directly contradicts this and can be eliminated. Answer (B) is a stereotype that the author dismisses, and so can be eliminated as well, while answer (D) is not supported by the passage. Only answer (C) is correct, as the author discusses some of the negative stereotypes that abound about arts administrators.

14.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage discusses the negative stereotypes that surround arts administrators in the third paragraph. Lines 39-41, or answer (C), provide direct support for the previous question, as they reference the point in the passage where the author discusses how “these stereotypes are not well-founded,” supporting the idea that arts administrators suffer from unfair assumptions about their careers. Answers (A) and (D) are unrelated to negative stereotypes, while (B) discusses a stereotype but does not reveal that it is merely a stereotype and not a supported fact.

15.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In line 55, “striking” is used to describe the surprising finding that a large number of arts administrators hold degrees from a specific American university. Thus, in context, answer (B) is the best choice. This finding warrants a stronger descriptor than “distinctive” (C), but is not positive enough to be considered “magnificent” (A). “Obvious” (D) is the opposite of the meaning of “striking” in the original sentence.

16.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Here, “conventional” is used in a line describing the characteristics of careers that arts administration lacks. These include “ordered sequences of jobs” that lead to “predictable destinations.” Thus, we can infer that “conventional” here is meant to express the orderly, typical entry portals that such stable careers usually have, best found in answer choice (D), “common.” Answers (A), (B), and (C) are all a bit too strong or specific to fit in the original sentence.

17.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 73-79 discuss some of the difficulties of careers in arts administration, including limited promotion opportunities and difficult career trajectories. The author is not making an argument about who should pursue careers in the arts, so we can eliminate answer (A). Nor are stress management techniques or environmental careers mentioned, eliminating (B) and (C). Answer (D) is correct, as the author here is warning that unless these issues are remedied they may draw away top talent from the field.

18.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graphic that accompanies the passage lists the budget ranges of various arts organizations. We can therefore immediately eliminate answers (A) and (C), since the graphic does not address salaries or earnings in these organizations. Answer (D) is also unsupported by the graphic. Answer (B) directly pulls from information in the table, which shows that budget ranges for theatres were typically lower than orchestras, when we compare their budgets in each quartile (Less than 260 vs. Less than 320; 260-500 vs. 320-700; 501-1200 vs. 701-1700; More than 1200 vs. More than 1700).

19.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage discusses how managers in larger organizations typically have more years of experience. Since these are likely to be organizations with higher budgets, we can conclude that (A) is correct. Answers (B), (C), and (D) all compare managers in different arts organizations, drawing conclusions unsupported by the passage and graphic, since we cannot compare managers across various organizations. Only (A) makes a comparison of orchestra managers in different-sized organizations.

20.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, Roosevelt is addressing the tyranny of the minority in the United States. While he is concerned, he is not despondent (B) or resigned (D) to this fact. Rather he is impassioned, best captured by answer choice (C) “fervent.” Roosevelt’s tone is not positive enough to support answer choice (A), “optimistic.”

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The problem that Roosevelt presents in the passage is that of the tyranny of the minority, as a minority is exerting its disproportionate power for self-serving goals. When we examine the choices, we see that only (C) provides an analogous situation, where a minority of people exercise their disproportionate influence. The tyranny of the minority is not related to an excess of issues to address (A) or popularity (B), and is by its nature not truly democratic (D).

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In line 14, Roosevelt uses the phrase “pay lip-loyalty” to discuss how his opponents expound the doctrine of the right of the people to rule, though they believe and act otherwise. Answer (B) best supports this meaning, while (C) is off-topic and (A) is incomplete. Answer (D) is too literal a reading.

23.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage focuses on Roosevelt’s negative opinion of the tyranny of the minority. By contrast, he expresses his belief that the United States does not suffer from a tyranny of the majority. We can therefore eliminate answers (A), (B), and (C), which leaves us with answer (D), correctly expressing Roosevelt’s view that the tyranny of the majority is not a major issue in the United States.

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage touches on the tyranny of the majority throughout, but lines 18-19, answer choice (B), show Roosevelt’s perspective on this topic, as he cites his “scant patience” with the discussion of the tyranny of the majority, thus implying that he does not see it as an issue. The lines in answers (A), (C), and (D) do not touch on the tyranny of the majority.

25.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, “stay” is used to express the idea that, if the majority indeed exerted a tyranny, nothing could stand in the way of that tyranny. This is best captured by answer choice (A), “halt.” Answer choices (B) and (C) do not make sense in the original sentence, and answer (D) is too weak.

26.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Roosevelt describes the minority who acts as though it has “a first mortgage on the whole United States, while the rights of all the people were merely an unsecured debt.” With this discussion of mortgages and debts, we can thus see that answer choice (B), “a financial metaphor,” is most accurate. None of the items in answers (A), (C), or (D) appear in the passage.

27.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, Roosevelt discusses how men in public office have often responded to the needs of the privileged few, as seen in answer choice (D). Answer (A) directly contradicts the passage, while (B) and (C) are not discussed.

28.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Answer (A) addresses the rule of the majority, not minority, while answers (C) and (D) are not directly relevant. Only answer (B) references lines in the passage where Roosevelt discusses those in public office who have “served not the whole people, but some special class or special interest.”

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage describes the phenomenon of invasive species, followed by the specific example of the green and brown anoles. Thus, answer (D) is most accurate. Though the author of the passage is a scientist involved in the research, the passage is more than just an anecdote (A) or description of a region (B). The passage is focused on explaining a biological phenomenon rather than putting forth an “impassioned argument” (C).

30.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage notes that the brown anole lizards arrived in south Florida from Cuba, entering the territory of the green anole lizards. This makes the brown anole lizards the invasive species, and the green anole lizards the native species, as described in answer (A). Answer (B) incorrectly reverses this relationship, while (C) and (D) mention geckos which are not identified as native or invasive species in the passage.

31.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Only the lines in answer choices (B) and (D) discuss the brown and green anole lizards. Between these, only answer (B) references a portion of the passage that explains the relationship between the two species, and so (B) is the correct answer. Answers (A) and (C) are not relevant.

32.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The author discusses the surprisingly fast evolution of the green anole lizards, mentioning that in just a short period of time, their toepads increased significantly in size. Thus, the author would not agree with either (A) or (D). Answer (C), while potentially true, is not addressed by the author. Only answer (B) is directly supported by the passage.

33.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To find support for the previous question, look for a segment of the passage that addresses the relationship between native and invasive species and evolutionary adaptations. Answer (A) is too general, while answer (B) is a statement of the author’s curiosity rather than a specific fact. Answer (C) is irrelevant, while answer (D) cites a portion of the passage that notes “it took only 20 generations—less than 15 years—for the toepads to increase by about 5%.” The use of “only” here indicates the author’s surprise at the quick pace of this evolutionary change. Answer (D) is thus correct.

34.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 5-7 begin with the words “for example,” and illustrate one example of invasive species that have colonized new places. Answer (D) most accurately captures this. The importance of these lines is not their discussion of the origin of invasive species (A), controls (B), or weeds (C), none of which match the focus of this paragraph or the passage as a whole.

35.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In line 10, “favor” is used to suggest that the characteristics of the individuals that can best survive are more likely to be selected. This is best represented by “prefer” (C). Natural selection does not accommodate (A), care for (B), or like (D) certain individuals.

36.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the passage, the author discusses how native species adapt in the face of pressure from invasive species, as shown in the example of the green and brown anoles. We can infer that the author thus listed the similarities of brown and green anoles in order to show why these two species would compete when in the same environment, leading to adaptations in the green anoles. This is best expressed by answer choice (A). The passage does not make the arguments listed in (B) and (C), and the focus of the comparison between the two species is related to their adaptations and not suitability for a certain habitat (D).

37.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Here, “impose” is used to describe how the introduction of brown anoles will lead to adaptations in the native green anoles in Florida. The natural selection that causes this is not exploited, urged, or charged upon the green anoles. Answer (D), “inflict,” best captures the meaning of the original word in the passage. Answers (A) and (C) do not fit in the original sentence, and “urge” (B) is too strong.

38.

The Correct Answer is (A) — From the graph’s title, we see that it shows the toepad area increase in green anoles specifically. It did not compare toepad size in green anoles to toepad size in brown anoles, so (B) and (C) can be eliminated. Since the graph showed an increase rather than decrease in toepad size, we can select answer (A) as the correct choice.

39.

The Correct Answer is (B) — “Extreme” here is used to describe unusual environments inhospitable to many types of life. From the given choices, answer (B) most nearly captures this meaning with “drastic” and is the correct answer. Answer (A) is too positive, (C) is too strong, and (D) does not make sense in context.

40.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author discusses Lake Whillans in the third paragraph, noting that “it receives no light to support photosynthesis, has constantly low temperatures…and is under pressure eighty times atmospheric pressure.” Thus, the author mentions answer choices (A), (B), and (D), but does not state that this environment contains no oxygen, so answer choice (C) is correct.

41.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author describes how chemoautotrophs consume inorganic materials such as iron, manganese, sulfur, and nitrogen, and that their lifestyle is “representative of the earliest life on earth.” They are uniquely suited to more extreme environments such as the one discussed in the passage. Thus, when we look at the answer choices, we see that (A) and (B) are directly opposite this type of environment, while (D) is irrelevant, as the intestinal tract of a large mammal likely does not mimic early conditions of life on Earth. Answer choice (C) is most appropriate, mentioning a mineral-rich but barren lake bed that would likely be hospitable to these consumers of inorganic material, but not to other organisms.

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To find support for the previous answer, look for a part of the passage that discusses the environment of chemoautotrophs. This is best found in answer (D), mentioning the chemoautotrophs’ consumption of inorganic materials like iron, manganese, sulfur, and nitrogen, and supporting the previous answer, which mentions a “mineral-rich” lake. Answers (A), (B), and (C) do not discuss chemoautotrophs or their consumption of inorganic chemicals.

43.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Passage 2 discusses how Antarctica’s many volcanoes have helped shelter diverse life over a long period, including during ice ages. Answer (B) best captures this meaning, as the passage discusses how the volcanoes’ warmth provided protection for many species during periods of deep freeze. The passage mentions but does not focus on the diversity of Antarctica (A) or the author’s experiments (D), and does not mention drilling (C).

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Answers (A) and (C) provide specific facts about Antarctica’s environment without touching on the main point of the passage. Answer (D) discusses species diversity, but answer (B) connects these logically to volcanoes, by citing a portion of the passage that describes how “volcanoes have sheltered diverse life over long periods, including during ice ages.”

45.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The author of the passage does not link volcanoes to the coming and going of ice ages, and so (A) can be eliminated. Nor does the author suggest anything about heat exposure, eliminating (B). Answer (C) is unsupported by the passage, which does not imply that glaciers are necessary for life in Antarctica. Only answer (D) can be inferred from the passage, as the author discusses how, when temperatures rise, species “disperse away, stepping-stone style, to new habitats.”

46.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In line 88, “richness” is used in reference to the “diversity gradient” the author discusses, with less variety the farther away from the volcano. Answer (C) is thus correct, as the author is discussing an abundance of species, and not an affluence (A), decadence (B), or luxuriance (D) of them.

47.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The first passage discusses one specific extreme environment in Antarctica, the subglacial lakes, while the second passages links Antarctica’s volcanoes to species diversity. Neither passage is putting forth a specific argument about these topics, so (B) can be eliminated. Nor do the passages discuss the various ages of different species, eliminating (C). Answer (D) suggests conclusions that neither author draws. Only answer (A) is correct, since Passage 1 focuses on the life adapted to the extreme environments of Antarctica’s subglacial lakes, and Passage 2 focuses on how volcanoes have sheltered life from extreme conditions.