1.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The word “however” serves as an aside and transition in the sentence, and requires commas around it, making (B) the correct answer choice.

2.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In context, this sentence is describing the important role accountants play behind the scenes, “helping to make what happens on the field possible.” Thus, answer (A), “essential,” is the correct choice.

3.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This sentence features a list of various items in athletic contracts. The correct punctuation consists of commas in between each item in the list, with no punctuation after “with.” Answer (D) is therefore the correct answer.

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Sentence 2 generally describes how all sports franchises have accountants that serve a variety of important functions within the team. The sentence would work well as a topic sentence for the paragraph, which discusses these various functions, and so should come before sentence 1, answer choice (C).

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to pick the most concise answer choice that conveys all relevant information. “MBA degree” as in (A) is redundant, so answer (B) is the best choice, while (C) and (D) introduce unnecessary words.

6.

The Correct Answer is (D) — “Every major team” is singular and requires a singular verb for “to need,” thus eliminating answers (A) and (B). The verb “to do” in the second part of the sentence needs to agree with the plural “smaller teams,” and so answer (C) can be eliminated, leaving answer (D), the correct choice.

7.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, “their counterparts in other corporate environments” is being compared to “accountants in the spectator sports industry.” Thus, no punctuation should interrupt this complete phrase, making (C) the correct choice.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The entire sentence describes how, though accountants in the spectator sports industry accept slightly lower salaries than average, their profession is still a practical choice. This contrast of information requires a transition word that signals this, making (B) the most appropriate answer. Notice that the next sentence supports the assertion in this final clause.

9.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Choose the option that best serves as a topic sentence for the paragraph. Since the paragraph discusses the various benefits of a career as a sports accountant, we can eliminate answer (C). The benefits described are all non-monetary, making (B) the most specific, accurate topic sentence. Answers (A) and (D) are too vague and can be eliminated.

10.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Pick the answer choice that matches the tense of the rest of the paragraph (present tense). Answer choice (B) is the only one that correctly puts both verbs, “to be” and “to provide,” in the present tense.

11.

The Correct Answer is (D) — After describing the benefits of sports accounting, the paragraph concludes that these make sports accounting a certain type of profession. To pick the word that best fills in this blank, consider that the author has just described many positives of the profession, making (A) too mild. Answers (B), (C), and (D) are all similar, but (B) and (C) are too informal in tone, making (D) correct.

12.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The subject of the verb “to have” here is Sassamon, so an additional “he” is unnecessary, making (A) and (C) incorrect. Since the sentence is describing a discrete event that occurred before the past events being described, the past perfect is required, making (B) the correct answer choice. (D) uses the simple past tense, which is incorrect as it suggests Sassamon met with Josiah Winslow at the same time that he disappeared.

13.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This sentence contains two separate ideas: (1) Sassamon’s body was found submerged in an icy pond; (2) the condition of his corpse indicated that he had been murdered. The best way to separate these two clauses would be answer choice (B), with a period. Answers (A) and (D) do not make grammatical sense, while answer (C) is a run-on sentence.

14.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Choose the correct preposition that goes with “executed.” The men were executed because they were found guilty of Sassamon’s murder, making answer (D), “for,” the most appropriate choice here.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — After box 15, the rest of the paragraph discusses some more positive relations between Native Americans and colonists. Answer choice (D) effectively prepares for this transition by mentioning that not all Native American-English relationships were filled with conflict.

16.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to choose the answer that best fits the tone of the passage. Answer (B) is too informal; answers (A) and (C) are too strong. (D) is more appropriate.

17.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The definition of the underlined word here can be gleaned from the rest of the sentence, describing the conflict as one that “simply could not have been avoided.” Answer (A), “inevitable,” best captures this meaning.

18.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The previous sentence describes the clash of cultures that led to King Philip’s War; the underlined sentence builds off of this by describing that the English and Native Americans had never before lived so closely, thus suggesting one reason for the conflict. Therefore, the sentence should be kept for the reason cited in answer choice (B).

19.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The final sentence concludes by transitioning from a discussion of the causes of the war to the violence of it. Thus, an answer choice is needed that expresses this transition. (A) and (D) do not signal the change in direction, and so can be eliminated, while (C) does not make sense, as the war was not violent in spite of its causes. Answer (B), however, works in context, since the violence of the war is an established fact, no matter what the causes.

20.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The underlined phrase is elaborating on the breakdown of the population who had died during the war. It is a dependent clause, so only answer choice (D) makes sense in context and is properly punctuated.

21.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The verb needs to agree with “the devastation” in number, and so must be singular, eliminating (A) and (B). The paragraph is also in the past tense, as it narrates historic events, and so answer (D) is the correct choice.

22.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Answer (D) is off-topic and can be eliminated, while answer (C) does not match the tone of the passage. Out of choices (A) and (B), answer (A) most effectively describes the tragic purpose and fate of the Seaflower, while answer (B) is much more general.

23.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The sentence here is listing three potential places the imperative “Show, don’t tell” is found: writers’ workshops, articles about writing, and Composition 101. Thus, the underlined portion must accurately conclude this list with a comma and the word “and,” as seen in answer choice (B).

24.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The phrase “by showing and telling” refers to the noun that comes right after, eliminating answers (B) and (D), since it is the writer (not the story or readers) that is doing the showing and telling. Answer choice (C) is in the passive voice, leaving answer (A) as the best answer.

25.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The second part of this sentence must be parallel to the first. Since earlier, the sentence refers to “readers,” and the subject does not change, “they” (C) would be the most appropriate pronoun to replace it.

26.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The paragraph discusses the benefits of showing rather than telling in writing, but concludes by mentioning that telling plays an important role as well. Answer (D) captures this by mentioning the importance of both types of writing, adding that exposition can provide insight, which transitions nicely to the final sentence.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage describes Joan Didion as “a celebrated novelist and journalist.” Answers (A) and (C) have negative connotations that don’t match this description, and so can be eliminated. Answer (B) most accurately captures the meaning of this phrase, while (D) is not strong enough to match with “celebrated.”

28.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Looking at the sentences that follow the underlined portion, we see that we start with a transition, “However,” indicating a change in direction where the author discusses their factual exposition. We can thus guess that the sentence will describe another aspect of Didion’s essay. Since (B) and (C) both discuss facts and information, we can eliminate them, since they would not provide enough of a contrast. Answer (D) is too vague and does not contrast with the sentences that follow, while (A) presents another side of the essay—Didion’s personal experiences—and is thus the correct answer.

29.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Since we are looking for an example that shows Didion’s use of exposition, we can eliminate (B) and (C), which mention personal stories rather than facts. Answer (D) talks about vivid imagery, not facts, and can be eliminated as well, leaving answer (A), which provides a matching example of “information about the treatment of the malady.”

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Since “this” is vague, search for an appropriate substitute. Only answer (B) specifies what the author means, “migraines,” and so is the correct answer.

31.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This sentence contains two separate ideas: (1) a great story is being told, complete with all necessary parts; and (2) Didion uses setting, characters, and specific details to bring the story alive. Look for a transition that accurately separates these two clauses, which in this case means answer choice (D). Answer (A) does not separate the clauses, while (B) and (C) do so incorrectly.

32.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Sentences 2-4 all discuss Didion’s “In Bed,” while sentence 1 is a general statement that detracts from the focus of the paragraph.

33.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This question requires you to choose the best transition word to the next paragraph. Since this paragraph continues to discuss Didion’s writing and use of narrative and exposition, (B) and (C) can be eliminated, since the paragraph does not introduce new ideas or conclusions. Answer (A) does not fit the tone of the passage, but answer (D) fits the topic sentence and signals the conclusion.

34.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Pick the answer that best transitions to the sentence that follows. Since the first sentence describes “an army equipped with spouts, hooks, buckets, and miles of plastic tubing,” and the second clarifies that the army “is not going into battle,” look for a transition word that captures this contrast. Only answer (D) signals this reversal, and so is the correct answer.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Both “the sap of sugar maples” and “the source of the most beloved topping for pancakes and waffles” refer to “maple syrup.” Thus, punctuation is required that demonstrates this relationship, best accomplished by answer choice (D), a colon.

36.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This portion of the passage is discussing the variations in syrup yields due to weather and other factors. Answer (A), “fluctuations,” best matches this meaning.

37.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Sentence 1 states that sugarmakers have often linked sap production to weather, though weather is not discussed again until sentence 4. Since sentence 1 serves as a nice transition to this topic, it would fit best after sentence 3 and before sentence 4, as shown in answer (B).

38.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Since the previous paragraph discusses fluctuations in syrup production due to weather, and this paragraph discusses how the species categorization of maple trees provides additional insight into their sugar production, we should look for a transition that links these two ideas. Answer choice (D) is the best option here, since it accurately describes the main topic of the paragraph, the “seed cycles of the trees,” in relation to their impact on syrup production. It also contains the transition word “however” to signal a break with the discussion of fluctuations in syrup production based on weather.

39.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The verb “to lead” here should agree in number with “mast years.” Since we know, based on the rest of the paragraph, that the verb should also be in the present tense, we can conclude that the correct answer is (C).

40.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Since “trees” here is not possessive, it does not require an apostrophe, leaving the correct choice as answer (A).

41.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, “affect” is correctly used as a verb that describes the relationship between the amount of sugar in the sap and syrup production. Remember that in most cases “affect” is used as a verb and “effect” is used as a noun, though there are some exceptions. We can therefore eliminate (B) and (D) from our choices. In addition, “affecting” is the proper form of the verb in this dependent clause, knocking out (C) and making (A) our answer.

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Choose the answer here that most concisely expresses the information given. Since the rest of the sentence already uses the phrase “in order to produce syrup,” we do not need to repeat this information early in the sentence, eliminating (A), (B), and (C) and leaving us with the correct answer, (D).

43.

The Correct Answer is (D) — When reading the graph, pay attention to the x- and y-axes. The y-axis represents syrup production in year t, while the x-axis represents the proportion of trees seeding in year t-1, or the year before. Thus, we can conclude that increased seeds in one year leads to decreased syrup production in the next, making answer (D) the correct choice.

44.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The underlined word here refers to sugarmakers, and so should be a plural pronoun. Since it is an indirect object, it should take the form found in (C), “them.”