1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Clinton starts the passage by discussing the “good times for America” and ends with the assertion that America can make college universal in the 21st century, opening higher education to all. Thus, his speech would most accurately be categorized as (C), optimistic. His passionate stance throughout eliminates (A), while his positive tone eliminates (B). Answer (D), arrogant, is not supported by the passage.

2.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Clinton begins the passage with a list of facts that positively compare the present to the past (“the lowest employment in 24 years,” “the lowest core inflation in 30 years,” “welfare rolls are at their lowest level in 27 years”). Answer choice (B) accurately describes this, whereas the techniques described in answers (A), (C), and (D) do not occur in the passage.

3.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Answer choice (A) directly references a piece of the evidence we used in the previous question to find our answer, while (B) and (C) do not address the country’s thriving and (D) is too specific to adequately address the previous answer.

4.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Read in context, we see that Clinton here was describing an America where every child has equal access to education and advancement opportunities. In these lines, we can also infer from “stretch a hand across a keyboard” that Clinton is referencing the internet, and is thus likely touting the possibilities that come with this new technology. Answers (A) and (B) are off-topic, while (C) is contrary to the tone that Clinton is using here. (D) is correct, accurately capturing Clinton’s hope for this open-access future.

5.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, Clinton is discussing the changes that Americans have lived through and continue to live through in the Information Age. The use of “gathering force” is meant to emphasize the increasing speed with which the world is changing, making answer choice (C) most appropriate. Answers (A), (B), and (D) do not match with the meaning of the passage.

6.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the passage, Clinton discusses how we have moved into an Information Age that is “first and foremost an education age” and that requires continuous education. Answer (C) can therefore be easily eliminated. From the description in the passage, we can also see that Clinton implies no causal relationship between education and the genesis of the Information Age, knocking out (B) and (D). Answer (A) is the best choice, as it captures Clinton’s suggestion that both the Information Age and education will continue to change and grow in importance in the modern world.

7.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Answer (A) directly references the lines in the passage where Clinton discusses education and the Information Age together, and so is the correct answer. By contrast, (B), (C), and (D) do not mention the Information Age.

8.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the text, Clinton is discussing the importance of making education a priority. In the line after, he notes that Congress, “across party lines,” has responded positively to his call. Thus, in context we can infer that Clinton meant that party differences and conflicts should not affect the issue of education. Answer (D) most accurately captures this. Answers (A), (B), and (C) are too specific to be supported by the passage.

9.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, Clinton mentions that 220,000 new Pell Grant scholarships have been passed, given to deserving students. Nowhere does he suggest that the Pell Grants universally forgive loans, eliminating (A). He also mentions the $1,500 tax credit called the Hope Scholarship, that will cover the cost of most community college tuition. This, however, does not cover the “entire cost” of a college education, as (B) states, and so (B) can be eliminated. Clinton doesn’t mention interest rates on student loans, eliminating (C), but he does mention new tax-free education IRAs in line 46, making (D) the correct answer.

10.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage discusses two personality types, maximizers and satisficers, and the different ways they go about analyzing choices and making decisions, before providing a specific example. Answer (A) best captures this. The author does not use personal examples from her own life, eliminating (D), nor does she suggest that making decisions can lead to a happier marriage, eliminating (C). The passage is also not persuasive, but informative—the author does not assert a thesis, so (B) can be eliminated as well.

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In the third paragraph, the passage notes that “the older you are, the less likely you are to be a maximizer.” Thus, we can infer that younger people are more likely than older people to be maximizers. Since the definition of a maximizer is someone who takes their time weighing all options, we can select (B) from the answer choices. Answer (C) states the opposite, and so can be eliminated. Answer choices (A) and (D) are too specific to be supported by the passage.

12.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the passage, the author discusses how people with opposite decision-making styles may balance each other out. Though she does not directly discuss satisficer-satisficer or maximizer-maximizer relationships, from the previous descriptions of these two decision-making styles, we can infer that (A) is most likely to be correct, since both partners would tend to make decisions quickly. Answer choices (B), (C), and (D) are not supported by information in the passage.

13.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The author does not discuss satisficer-satisficer relationships directly, but support for the previous answer can be found in the definition of “satisficer” given in the passage, as seen in answer (A). Answer (B) doesn’t address the speed with which satisficers make decisions, while (C) and (D) discuss relationships without addressing any qualities of satisficers that would provide evidence for the previous answer.

14.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the referenced lines, the author defines maximizers as those who make decisions more slowly, taking time to weigh their options before choosing. In the given situations, only (D) is analogous to this, also describing a situation where a decision-maker weighs various options before committing to one. Answer choice (A) describes considering only a couple of options, whereas (B) and (C) do not relate to making choices.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Here, “weigh” is used to describe the maximizers’ consideration of a wide range of options, making (D) the correct answer. Answers (A), (B), and (C) do not make sense in context.

16.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage provides the anecdote of “the car” to show how Mr. and Ms. Richards, after an initial conflict, learned how to better navigate their different decision-making styles. Answer (B) best describes the meaning of this anecdote, while (A) is incomplete and (C) is contrary to the passage, as Ms. Richards challenged her husband’s decision at first. Answer (D) makes too wide of a generalization from the given anecdote.

17.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The correct answer should adequately capture how the couple learned to work together after their initial difficulties. Answer (A) is irrelevant, while (B) says nothing about the outcome of the incident. Answer (D) discusses maximizers and satisficers generally, not Mr. and Mrs. Richards. Answer (C) correctly references a line that discusses how the Richards learned to work together so that their different decision-making styles complemented one another.

18.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In the passage, “paralyzed” describes a situation where a maximizer is crippled by indecision—or, in other words, their indecisiveness results in inaction. Answer (B) is too literal here, while the maximizer’s indecision does not shock them or leave them dazed, eliminating (A) and (D) respectively. The maximizers do, however, feel overwhelmed with their indecision, so (C) is the correct answer.

19.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The graphic that accompanies the passages shows how, with an increase in choices, positive emotions initially increase and then level off, while negative emotions initially increase much more rapidly. Since we can see from the steepness of the curves that increasing choice creates more bad feelings than good, we can eliminate (A) and (D). When we turn to the second part of answer options (B) and (C), we see that (C) contradicts the passage, as satisficers tend to make decisions more quickly than maximizers. Answer (B) is correct in both parts, as the passage also supports the idea that satisficers, since they make decisions more quickly, consider fewer options.

20.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage describes a new study that links ingredients in chocolate to improved memory, specifically by helping stave off age-related memory loss. Answer (B) contradicts the tone of the passage while (D) does not mention memory at all. Answer (C) is a misinterpretation of the passage, which does not focus on drinking chocolate and focuses specifically on age-related memory loss. Answer (A) accurately and completely describes the main point, mentioning the new study, the study’s findings, and the specific population they are relevant to.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — After discussing the benefits of chocolate, the passage transitions by stating that “unless you are stocking up for Halloween, do not rush to buy Milky Way or Snickers bars” (lines 36-37). The author goes on to explain that these types of candies, and most milk chocolate, already have much of the epicatechin processed out of them. Thus, (C) is the correct answer. The other forms of chocolate in (A), (B), and (D) would contain more epicatechin than milk chocolate.

22.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To find the answer that best supports the previous choice, look for a part of the text that discusses the low epicatechin quantities in milk chocolate. Though (A) discusses milk chocolate it does not mention epicatechin levels, and can thus be eliminated. Answer (B) discusses dark chocolate, not milk chocolate, while answer (C) directly states that most epicatechin has been processed out of milk chocolate, making it the correct answer. Answer (D) talks about the process that removes healthy compounds in chocolate, but does not mention milk chocolate at all.

23.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage describes how the company Mars, Inc. approached Dr. Small for a research study, as well as Dr. Small’s initial negative reaction. However, he eventually concluded that the company employed “serious scientists” who would not apply bias to their research. Answer (A) accurately captures his initial suspicions, as well as the reason behind them. Answers (B), (C), and (D) are all misreadings of the details given in the passage.

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Though all answer choices mention Dr. Small, only (B) addresses his opinion of Mars, Inc., describing his initial temptation to discard Mars’ communication to him. Answers (A), (C), and (D) do not relate to the previous question.

25.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage mentions two parts of the brain: the dentate gyrus, which was positively affected by flavanol consumption, and the entorhinal cortex, which was not. Based on this, (B) and (D) can be eliminated, while (C) mentions blood flow, something not addressed in the passage. Answer (A) accurately conveys that the study showed consumption of flavanol led to increased function in the dentate gyrus.

26.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, the author uses “promotes” to help explain how Mars is selling its CocoaVia supplement by advertising its benefits on circulation. This circulation is not being (A) advertised, (B) encouraged, or (C) raised, but rather stimulated by the CocoaVia product, making (D) the correct choice.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Here, “vigorous” is used to modify “exercise,” in a part of the passage where the author is describing how Dr. Small initially found that exercise did not have a significant effect on memory, and that a greater amount or intensity of exercise might be required to show any results. Thus, when choosing what type of exercise is meant by “vigorous,” we can see that (A), (C), and (D) are irrelevant, and only (B), “intense,” captures this meaning.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The graphic that accompanies the passage compares antioxidant levels in cocoa, red wine, and green tea, including both epicatechin and gallic acid equivalents. Answers (A) and (B) directly contradict the graph, while (D) is unsupported by the passage. Answer (C) accurately interprets information from the graphic and, since the passage discusses some of the drawbacks of chocolate consumption like “its fat and calories” (lines 51-52), accurately concludes that cocoa would not be suitable as an exclusive source of antioxidants.

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Passage 1 starts by discussing the FDA’s warning letter to 23andMe, ordering it to stop selling its personalized genome services kit, and then moves into the drawbacks and limitations of such testing kits. Answer (B) most closely matches this main point. Answer (A) directly contradicts the passage, which states that the raw data (though not the analysis) is easy to obtain. Answers (C) and (D) are not supported by the passage.

30.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Since we are looking for evidence that supports the idea that home genome sequencing kits are unhelpful, we can eliminate answer (A). Answer (B) notes that raw data might be “worth than useless,” but its context shows that this does not refer to home genome sequencing kits in particular. Answer (C) mentions that results from the kits might be entertaining, but does not address their drawbacks. Answer (D) cites a portion of the passage that notes that cheap sequence data from these companies “has much greater potential to harm without the proper interpretation of results,” which provides support for the previous answer.

31.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Consider the position the author takes towards home genome sequencing kits. The author notes their numerous drawbacks, and ends by mentioning that cheap sequence data “has much greater potential to harm” with current technological limitations. This approach most closely matches (D), “critical.” Answers (A) and (B) are a bit too strong, and the passage is a bit informal to be considered “academic” (C).

32.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the passage, “interpretation” is used in a sentence discussing the dangers of using raw sequence data, given our inability at the moment to accurately analyze the results. The author is using “interpretation” here to talk about limits of understanding of these results, so (A) is the correct answer. Answers (B), (C), and (D) do not fit in the original sentence.

33.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In context, “distillation” is used to describe how the immense amount of data generated by scans must be condensed and filtered down before its information can be of use to consumers. Answer (C) most nearly matches this meaning, while (A), (B), and (D) all refer to more technical definitions of “distillation.”

34.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Lines 65-68 assert that the main problem with genome sequencing data is that scientists have not yet reached a consensus on the predictive biomarkers for most conditions, due to limitations with the amount of data available. Answer (A), (B), and (C) all contradict this, while answer (D) supports the segment by offering one reason why more progress has not been made on the identification of predictive biomarkers.

35.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Both of the passages discuss the limitations of genome sequencing in its current form, but while Passage 1 is critical, Passage 2 is optimistic about technological innovations that might make sequencing more useful. Answer (A) accurately captures this relationship. We can eliminate (B) since both Passage 1 and Passage 2 do discuss potential benefits. Answer (D) can be eliminated since Passage 1 does not directly respond to Passage 2’s points, while answer (C) can be eliminated because Passage 1 is not a more comprehensive exploration of ideas raised in Passage 2.

36.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Passages 1 and 2 mention the ability to research the origins of family ancestors, while Passage 2 mentions the potential to look for gene mutations that indicate disease and health risks based on family history. Only (D) is not mentioned in either passage, and is thus the correct answer.

37.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In this section of Passage 1, Nancy Shute discusses how, for genome sequencing data to be useful, an individual’s data must be compared to many others. This analysis, she continues, is a slow and expensive process. If we consider the optimism of the author of Passage 2, as well as her mention in the passage of a company that aims to lower the cost of sequencing and thus obtain more data, we can see that answer (A) is the best option. Answers (B), (C), and (D) do not have enough support in Passage 2 to be selected.

38.

The Correct Answer is (D) — To find support for the previous answer, look for the section in Passage 2 that contains the author’s discussion of the company that aims to reduce the cost of genome sequencing, thus allowing them to find more predictive biomarkers. Only answer (D) does so, mentioning a line from a paragraph about GnuBio that discusses the effects of faster, cheaper sequencing.

39.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Early in the passage, Francis is described as a man who has achieved a quiet, respectable life through his hard work and docile disposition. He is not a scholar or an orphan, so (B) and (C) can be eliminated. Though he is a clerk, the passage does not indicate that he dislikes his job, eliminating (D). Answer (A) correctly describes Francis as a man who works hard and has seen the fruits of his labor.

40.

The Correct Answer is (B) — After hearing the conditions of the offer, Francis calls the news “startling” and asks for some time to consider his options. As he considers the offer, he finds himself drawn to its mysterious conditions and large sum, comparing his own mundane life unfavorably. We can eliminate (A) because we know from early in the passage that Francis is not struggling financially, and since he asked for some time to consider the offer, he did not find it “unambiguously appealing” (C). He also does not express any discomfort or repugnance at the specific condition of having his wife chosen for him, eliminating (D). Answer (B) accurately conveys that Francis finds the offer tempting because of the figure named and the exciting conditions that come along with it, making (B) the correct answer.

41.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Answers (A) and (B) do not describe Francis’ reaction to the conditions of the offer. Answer (C) does mention that Francis finds the news startling, but only (D) encompasses his more nuanced views of the offer, referencing a line where Francis thinks of how “his whole carnal man leaned irresistibly towards the five hundred a year, and the strange conditions with which it was burdened,” making (D) the correct answer.

42.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, “ultimate” is used to refer to an eventual advance in salary that Francis expects to achieve, after continuing in his current position. We find this in answer (A), while answers (B), (C), and (D) do not contain this reference to the future necessary in this context.

43.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, the Writer notes that the deal is unusual and the case is “very much out of our way.” In fact, he says he would have refused it if not for the reputation of the man who brought it to him. Answer (D) most closely matches this reaction, while (C) directly contradicts the Writer’s positive impression of the deal’s origins and (A) and (B) cite emotions that the Writer does not exhibit in the passage.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Only answer (B) features the Writer’s opinion of the offer; answers (C) and (D) are quotations of the Writer as he discusses the conditions, but do not feature any commentary, while answer (A) is irrelevant.

45.

The Correct Answer is (D) — “Gravely” here refers to the type of welcome that the senior member of the firm of Writers to the Signet gives Francis. In the context of the passage, we can see that the Writer was not menacing (C) or concerned (B), while “badly welcomed” (A) does not make sense in context. Instead, we can infer from the seriousness of the Writer’s manner that “gravely” most likely means “solemnly,” as seen in answer (D).

46.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The Writer commends Francis on his prudence right after Francis asks for some time to consider the unusual offer. Thus, we can conclude that the lawyer is praising Francis for the reason found in answer (B). The Writer never mentions Francis’s employer (C), and Francis does take time to consider the offer’s conditions and decide whether or not he will take it, eliminating both (A) and (D).

47.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the last paragraph, Francis feels irresistibly drawn to the offer, and increasingly resentful towards his ordinary, uneventful life. We can therefore surmise that he takes the offer, eliminating (C) and (D). Francis’ attitude at the end of the passage is one of excitement rather than anxiety (B), so (A) is the correct answer.