1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Though all answer choices touch on subjects in the passage, only (C) offers an accurate description of what the passage is about as a whole. The passage is not a comparison of the merits of suburban vs. urban living, as (A) suggests. Nor are “most American cities” experiencing a significant influx of college-aged students as stated in (B), as the passage offers other examples, like Atlanta, where the trend is opposite. (D) is off-point and not relevant.

2.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In line 53, the author notes that the influx of young graduates “could…bolster city economies,” providing support for (A). Answers (B) and (C) are not mentioned in the passage, and (D) is a misinterpretation of the passage’s discussion of one of Denver’s drawing points, its job opportunities in technology.

3.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Direct evidence for the previous question is found in multiple parts of the passage, but only the line reference in (B) is one of them, directly confirming that the author believes the cities young graduates flock to will become “economic powerhouses.” (A), (C), and (D) are all off-topic.

4.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Answer (A) directly contradicts the passage, which suggests early on that young graduates are flocking to many new cities, in addition to New York and San Francisco. Answers (B) and (D) are not mentioned anywhere in the passage, while (C) builds off of the author’s explanation of the appeal of Denver, mentioning both job opportunities and cultural attractions, and is therefore the correct choice.

5.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Answer (B) addresses the most direct evidence in the passage in support of the previous answer, as its lines reference the part of the passage where the author discusses Denver’s appealing qualities for young graduates—its “tangible things young people want,” including mountains, sunshine, and job opportunities. Answers (A), (B), and (D) by contrast don’t address any factors that motivate young graduates to move.

6.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In this sentence, the author is describing how young graduates are moving away from the suburbs in favor of urban environments. Thus, only (A) makes sense in context, as young graduates do not “despise” or “defy” the suburbs, and the connotations of “jilt” do not match the situation.

7.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The referenced lines discuss how, unlike many Americans, young college graduates are very mobile, thus lending support to answer choice (B). The author does not make any negative judgments of the young grads, so (C) is incorrect. Neither does the author discuss the logistics of the research, such as how easy it is to collect or when it will be out of date, so (D) and (A) are out as well.

8.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage mentions “mountains, sunshine and jobs in booming industries like tech” as well as bike-sharing that lends it a “perception of cultural cool.” Thus, (A), (B), and (C), are all mentioned, but the author makes no mention of affordable housing, so (D) is the correct answer.

9.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Answer choice (A) is not as strong as the meaning of “bolster” in the passage, while (D) is nonsensical in context. Since the author is discussing how young graduates will contribute to and grow the economies of the cities they flock to, (C) is the correct choice. While (B) may be tempting, it is a weaker choice than (C) and implies an advocacy on the part of young graduates that is not supported by the passage.

10.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The title of the graph is “Percent Change in the Number of College Graduates aged 25 to 34, from 2000 to 2012.” Thus, (A) is incorrect because it makes a statement about gross numbers. We also do not know from this graph the age breakdown within each population, so cannot know whether (B) is correct. Answer (C) does not make sense and is not represented in the graph. (D) correctly interprets the data in the graph that shows that Minneapolis, Chicago, and Boston are all below the 25% average population growth in the 25 to 34 demographic.

11.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Lines 11-14 in the passage discuss how Kate Mansfield “got the idea to go solar” by seeing other wildlife researchers tracking birds with small solar panels. Only answer choice (C) correctly identifies this, while answer choices (A), (B), and (D) require assumptions about Dr. Mansfield not found in the passage.

12.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Since we found our answer choice for the previous question by referring back to lines 11-14, we can see that option (B), lines 12-14, is a likely answer. The sentence in the passage mentions that Dr. Mansfield “saw that other wildlife researchers were tracking birds with small solar panels,” reaffirming the answer to the previous question. Answer choice (A) addresses a quality of the ineffective tags Dr. Mansfield previously used, while (C) and (D) discuss the turtles’ journey without mentioning the tags.

13.

The Correct Answer is (B) — We know that researchers are using one segment of the turtles’ journey to extrapolate about the larger one, as the beginning of the fifth paragraph mentions that the turtles’ travel speed from the Gulf Stream to North Carolina could be used to calculate the turtles’ expected journeying time to the Azores (less than a year). Though the timeline of the turtles’ journey fit estimates based solely on passive drifting, it did not take into account the additional side trips that would add to the distance traveled. Thus, in those three weeks, the turtles actually traveled farther, which would mean that their calculated speed is even greater, making (B) the correct answer choice. There is no study of turtle speed in North Carolina in the passage, so (A) is incorrect, while (D) references radio tags that we know from earlier were discarded in favor of solar panels. Though (C) mentions passive drifting, and thus may be tempting, the passage nowhere mentions researchers creating a detailed map of the turtles’ journey—indeed, by the predictions and estimates mentioned, it seems unlikely that the researchers would be able to record this level of detail.

14.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Answers (A) and (B) come before the discussion of the turtles’ speed and are not relevant to the previous answer choice, while answer choice (D) references a line that discusses water temperature, not turtle speed. Only (C) directly supports the previous conclusion about turtles’ speed by making note of the many side trips turtles take, making their calculated speed of locomotion even greater.

15.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The sentences prior to line 6 provides the answer, describing the period as “what the turtles do and where they go in those juvenile years,” before they return to the beaches where they hatched. (C) is thus the correct answer. (A) and (D) are off-topic, while (B) mentions a decade-long hibernation not discussed anywhere in the passage.

16.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Dr. Wallace says that Dr. Mansfield’s research will likely be remembered as a “seminal paper” in sea turtle biology. Even if you did not know that “seminal” means influential and groundbreaking, from the context of the passage, you can guess that Dr. Wallace’s impressions are likely positive. Thus, (D) is the correct answer. Answer choices (A), (B), and (C) are all too negative.

17.

The Correct Answer is (A) — “Passive” here refers to the drifting of turtles in the ocean, without their active energy. (A) most closely matches this meaning, while (B), (C), and (D) all refer to attitudes not attributed to the turtles in the passage.

18.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Both passages address the early years of turtles and researchers’ breakthroughs in tracking them; however, Passage 2 discusses the researchers’ use of nano-tags, while Passage 1 discusses their use of solar panels. Thus, (A) is correct. Passage 1 touches on Dr. Mansfield’s early struggles to track the turtles, directly contradicting (B). Both (C) and (D) incorrectly make distinctions not present in the research; neither researcher tracked turtles in an artificial environment, and neither tracked adult turtles.

19.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Passage 1 makes reference to the fact that the turtles’ activities in their teenage years has been a mystery for decades, while Passage 2 likewise says that scientists had struggled for some time to reliably track turtles’ swims and see how they managed their first hours, making answer (B) correct. The passage doesn’t discuss the endangered status of turtles, nor does it suggest that interest has waned in turtles, knocking out answers (A) and (D). The focus of the researchers’ work is on turtles, not ocean currents, so (C) is also incorrect.

20.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage describes Dr. Hood’s initial bafflement at the appearance and request of Father Brown, before he finally agrees to hear the case, stating amusedly that he has nothing else to do that afternoon (line 54). Therefore, (B) best fits the information given in the passage. We have no evidence that Dr. Hood’s practice is failing (C), or that he pities Father Brown (A). He also contrasts Father Brown’s pedestrian case with some of the other, more important ones he’s worked on, thus knocking out (D) as well.

21.

The Correct Answer is (C) — While (A), (B), and (D) are off-topic, (C) is the only answer choice here that directly discusses the attitude of Dr. Hood, shining light on why he decides to take on the case. After Father Brown’s latest plea, Dr. Hood chuckles and takes on an ironical attitude as he prepares to hear the case, thus suggesting the amusement referenced in the previous answer.

22.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Here, the use of “certain” is meant to convey that Dr. Hood specializes in a specific set of moral disorders, rather than all. Answer choice (A), particular, would thus work here, while the other meanings of “certain” as suggested in (B), (C), and (D) do not make sense in context.

23.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the passage, the comparison is drawn to shine light on Dr. Hood’s character by noting its similarities to the ocean, so (A) is the correct answer. (B) and (C) miss the meaning of the comparison entirely, while (D) does not make sense given the description of the similarities between Dr. Hood and the ocean, which focuses on their rigidness and restlessness rather than any hidden depths each has.

24.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Take the question in parts to help narrow down answer choices. By first focusing on Dr. Hood’s reactions, we can easily eliminate (A) and (D). If we then look to the answer choices’ descriptions of Father Brown’s reaction, we see that (B) describes him as apologetic and (C) describes him as pleased. Since Father Brown tells Dr. Hood to “Pray excuse me” (line 23 and line 25) multiple times, we can infer that his initial attitude was indeed apologetic, making answer choice (B) correct.

25.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In the passage, Dr. Hood mentions that it has been fourteen and a half years since he was asked to test a personal problem, the previous one being the poison attempt on the French President. Right after, he contrasts this with Father Brown’s case—that of a potential engagement—to highlight the difference in stakes. Answer (B) most clearly expresses this. Answer (D) does not make sense in the context of the passage, while both (A) and (C) incorrectly interpret Dr. Hood’s purpose, as he is not seeking to impress, or sell his services to, Father Brown.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — By substituting the words into the passage, it becomes apparent that “dependable warmth” (B) and “absolute warmth” (D) do not make sense in context. The use of “unquestionable” here is meant to express Father Brown’s sincere gratitude towards Dr. Hood, so (A) is the correct answer. Answer (C), though a synonym for “unquestionable,” does not accurately capture the connotations of sincerity in the original phrase.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — When we refer back to the passage to see what Dr. Hood was responding to, we see that Father Brown had just revealed that Maggie wishes to marry Todhunter, which he calls an “awful complication.” Dr. Hood sarcastically agrees, hyperbolically calling the situation a “hideous enigma” to match Father Brown’s attitude. Thus, (B) is the correct answer; (A) takes Dr. Hood’s statement too literally, while (C) and (D) make assumptions not present in the passage.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Both (A) and (B) do not address the topic of the previous question. While (D) references the line that Dr. Hood responded to, it does not provide any evidence for the previous answer choice, which focuses on Dr. Hood’s reaction. Answer (C) does, however, as it mentions Dr. Hood’s “huge and silent amusement” that later prompts him to respond to Father Brown by calling the situation a “hideous enigma,” shining light on his attitude and emotional state.

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage discusses graduate student Matthew Stork’s research, mentioning the university he is affiliated with as well, making (B) the correct answer. No anecdotal evidence is given, so (A) is incorrect, while groups of exercisers are discussed in the context of Stork’s experiments, not in polls, making (C) incorrect as well. The author also does not discuss any research she herself has conducted, so (D) is similarly incorrect.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This question requires you to extrapolate from the author’s discussion of Matthew Stork’s research to her conclusions about music and high-intensity interval training. While (A) is not supported by the passage, (C) and (D) are contrary to the spirit of the passage, as the author is discussing the potential value and interesting conclusions that can be drawn from this research. (B) correctly touches on the author’s discussion of how music can help exercisers increase their output, though their assessment of difficulty may remain constant.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Answers (A) and (B) discuss the set-up of the research and not the results, so they can be eliminated. Answer (C) references a line where the author notes that exercisers’ power output had been greater when listening to music, thus correctly providing evidence for the previous answer that music can increase the effectiveness of a workout. Answer (D) is referring to the physiological mechanisms through which music affects exercise, and thus is not relevant.

32.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author nowhere suggests that long-distance endurance training is a preferable form of exercise, making (A) incorrect. Nor does the author suggest that high-intensity interval training is dangerous or unfavorable because of its difficulty, eliminating choices (B) and (D) respectively. The author does mention both the strenuousness and benefits of high-intensity interval training, making (C) the correct answer.

33.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Answer (A) touches on both parts of the previous answer: both the exercise’s physically unpleasant nature, and its many health benefits, making this the correct choice. Answer (B) discusses the exercise’s research appeal to scientists, not the exercise itself, and can thus be eliminated. (C) and (D) discuss aspects of the scientists’ research that also do not shed any light on the author’s attitude toward high-intensity interval training.

34.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In the fourth paragraph, the passage mentions that previous studies have focused on standard endurance exercise, and that few have looked at the effect of music on intense intervals. The next paragraph states that, despite other scientists’ reservations on the efficacy of such experiments, Matthew Stork decided to proceed with this line of research. Answer (A) correctly identifies this difference as Stork’s focus on high-intensity interval training, while (B) and (C) reference details not present in the passage. While the passage does mention Stork allowed exercisers to pick their own music, the passage nowhere suggests that most other studies had pre-set playlists, ruling out answer choice (D).

35.

The Correct Answer is (B) — We know from the passage that music helps exercisers increase their output in exercise, even if it does not make the exercise seem any easier. Answer choice (B) is analogous, as it describes a situation where a construction worker is able to increase his output, while difficulty remains the same. (C) and (D) describe situations where things become easier, and (A) describes a situation with a drawback, none of which match the passage.

36.

The Correct Answer is (B) — “Ferociously” here is meant to convey that the exercisers were pedaling much more quickly and intensely while listening to music. Thus, only answer choice (B) captures this meaning, while (A), (C), and (D) all carry connotations not appropriate to the excerpt.

37.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Here, the author states that music can “mute” the body’s messages of discomfort, implying that they no longer have as strong an effect on exercisers. Answer (C), dampen, most closely matches this meaning, while (A) and (B) do not make sense in context as their implications are too strong. (D) is also too strong in degree, as the messages are not stripped altogether.

38.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The two graphs included in the passage chart peak power and mean power respectively. From the graphs, it is apparent that music (represented by the solid line) had a greater effect on peak power than mean power, as the two lines are farther apart in the “Peak Power” graphic. Thus, (A) is correct. Answer (B) directly contradicts the graphs, as the difference in power actually decreased with each bout, not increased. Knowing this, we can eliminate (C) for the same reason. Answer choice (D) is incorrect, as we can see the differences between the lines representing exercisers using music and exercisers not using music.

39.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Emma Goldman’s tone in this passage is passionate as she argues against conscription. Answer (C) can thus be eliminated, while (A) and (B) are not supported by the subject of the passage or attitude of Goldman. Answer (D), "zealous", is therefore the correct answer, as it means fervent and passionate.

40.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Goldman addresses her audience as “friends” as she lays out her views of the war and conscription. We can thus infer that she is likely addressing (B), a group of people at a protest, rather than an unsympathetic press (C) or a judge at her own trial (A). Answer (D) may be tempting until we consider that Goldman is laying out ideological values that serve as a rallying cry for an audience that seems sympathetic to the cause.

41.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Goldman discusses the “tragedy” of the court case in order to highlight the judge’s abuse of power, when he not only found the two men guilty but proceeded to insult them. Answer choice (C) most clearly captures this, while (B) contradicts Goldman’s support of the two men. Goldman nowhere mentions raising funds for the convicted, as (D) implies, nor does she question the judge’s power in the trial, making (A) incorrect.

42.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Answer choice (B) directly references the point in the passage when Goldman discusses why the trial represents a “tragedy” as she narrates the judge’s insult after the sentencing. Answers (A) and (D) do not address the judge’s behavior. While (C) does touch on Goldman’s opinion of the judge, it does not provide any evidence of why Goldman brought up the trial.

43.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The passage suggests that Goldman is against conscription, as Americans should not be forced to partake in a war they don’t agree with. This is contrary to answer choices (B) and (D), so these can be eliminated. While answer (A) captures Goldman’s argument, (C) incorrectly interprets it, as Goldman nowhere discusses the rights of individuals vs. government to bear arms.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Since the previous answer stated that Goldman found participation in the war unacceptable because Americans did not believe in the cause, we can see that answer choice (B) most directly supports this, quoting a portion of the passage where Goldman states Americans do not believe in the war and have not been asked whether the country should go to war. Answers (C) and (D) are irrelevant, while (A) offers no direct evidence about America’s participation in WWI, instead discussing the Spanish-American War in preparation for Goldman’s later argument.

45.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In the passage, Goldman is using “audacity” in reference to the judge’s decision to insult Kramer and Becker, which we know she disapproves of based on the context. Thus, we can eliminate (B) and (C), which have contrary connotations. We are then left with “rudeness” and “gall,” and can see in the context of the sentence that “gall” more closely matches the intensity and meaning of the paired word in the sentence.

46.

The Correct Answer is (A) — We know from working through some of the previous questions that Goldman’s condemnation of the judge was not for condemning the two men, but for abusing his position and insulting them right after. Answer choice (A) captures this, while (B) and (C) are contrary to the facts of the passage and (D) requires making assumptions not supported by the text.

47.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Goldman is discussing the suppression of human voices, so in context only (A) would serve as an appropriate substitution, since human voices cannot be conquered (B), withheld (C), or controlled (D).