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QUESTION EXPLANATIONS

For Online Exam #1 (Online Exam)

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1. The correct answer is (D) — This question requires you to identify the tone of the passage. Look for tone words in the passage, and consider how they work together. In the opening lines the speaker describes the setting using language that has a somewhat bleak tone. The packed train is “Far, far down” in “the city’s great gaunt gut,” the children are “pale-faced,” and even the air is “sick and heavy.” The tone of the second half is more pleasant: “sleepy waters,” where palm trees are “blooming white” and the air is “fresh and free.” The contrast between the bleak urban setting and the pleasant islands is marked by the phrase “moans for,” expressing the speaker’s yearning. (D), “wistfulness,” is a state of yearning or nostalgia, and aptly describes the sense of longing created in this poem. (A), “ennui,” is a negative tone word expressing a feeling of dissatisfaction or boredom--a lack of excitement. The first part of the poem does seem to express dissatisfaction, but “packed cars” and “rushing” trains create a sense of activity; meanwhile, the second part does not have a negative tone at all. (B), “ambivalence,” expresses a state of conflicting desires: wanting two opposing things at the same time. While the poem uses contrasting imagery, like “sick and heavy” vs. “fresh and free,” and “moans for” expresses desire, the desire only goes one way. (C), “loneliness and fear,” doesn’t strongly correspond to any clues in the poem. The first part has a somewhat negative tone, and dark imagery--but also a “crowd” and “laughter.” (E), “bitter exhaustion,” somewhat aptly describes the “weary wind” and “heavy air” of the first part of the poem, but not the “fresh and free” tradewinds of the final line, and not the poem as a whole.
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2. The correct answer is (B) — (B) This question requires you to identify the main subject of the poem.The key to determining the main subject of the poem is to think about how the different details work together: the poem discusses the wind in the city and the wind over islands and oceans, and they are being compared. (B) is correct because this contrasting imagery directly represents tension between urban life and the natural world. Though the subway is described with imagery that has a slightly negative tone, the narrator does not seem confused by it, and this detail only makes up a small part of the poem, so (A) is not correct. (C) is not correct because, while the poem does use wind-related imagery to represent the speaker’s feelings, including some imagery of turbulent wind, that detail does not fully capture the main subject of the poem. (D) is incorrect because it’s an overly literal interpretation of the poem. Artificial and natural wind are compared, but that comparison is a device that is used to express an idea—not the subject itself. (E) might be tempting because one can imagine that the speaker could be reminiscing, but even if that’s the case many of the stimuli described are actually being remembered—not evoking memories.
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3. The correct answer is (A) — (A) The phrase repeats and stresses the consonant sounds of the letter g, making this an example of alliteration; (A) is correct. Although there is an implied simile in the comparison of the wind in the tunnel and the island tradewinds, those two things are not presented as being like one another so (B) is not correct. The author does not use (C) synedoche, a figure of speech in which a part of something stands for the whole. (D) Onomatopoeia, a figure of speech in which a sound mimics the sense of a word, is not a literary element in use here. There are no references to mythical people, places, or things, so (E) is incorrect.
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4. The correct answer is (D) — (D) Poets use imagery to invoke the senses and to represent things and concepts. In this case, it seems the poet wants to provide the reader with the sensation of being inside the city, experiencing its invisible yet vital interior. (A) is incorrect because the subway system is not angular. (B) is incorrect because there is no mention of criminals in the poem. (C) is incorrect because the subway system does not digest things. (E) is incorrect because the subway system is not the city’s internal organs. (D) is correct because there is a certain visceral vividness inherent in the use of the phrase “great gaunt gut,” each word invoking a specific idea—the subway system is enormous; its dark tunnels are narrow passages carved out of bedrock; the entire system takes in and emits the people that feed the city’s needs.
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5. The correct answer is (C) — (C) The speaker of the poem seems to feel trapped in a colorless existence, far from the blue waters and white sands of his home. As a result, his portrayal of the city is that of a cheerless existence carried out in dark, inhospitable spaces. The train, unlike the native schooners that bob on the waves, is representative of the city. Clearly, the drabness of the color gray contributes to (and reinforces) the dour depiction of the city.
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6. The correct answer is (C) — (C) In lines 5 and 6, the speaker states “And pale-cheeked children seek the upper door/To give their summer jackets to the breeze.” There is no emergency so (A) is not correct. The description of the children as seeking the upper door indicates that they have gotten off the train and made their way upstairs to the street; they are not entering the train, so (B) is incorrect. “To give” does not indicate putting on a coat, so (D) is incorrect. There is no reference to the children wanting sunlight, so (E) is incorrect. The best way to restate lines 5 and 6 is (C), “the children are heading for the exit from the subway station.”
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7. The correct answer is (E) — (E) In this context, the “captive wind” implies that the speaker is not referring to a free-flowing breeze. Rather, because line 2 states that “The gray train rushing bears the weary wind,” and the train is part of the subway system, it is logical to conclude that the wind exists only within the subterranean tunnels. Therefore, the literal interpretation of this phrase would be that it refers to “the gusts that trains push through subway tunnels.”
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8. The correct answer is (E) — (E) Though the narrator is overcome with longing for the islands, he remains on the subway; the setting does not actually change so (A) is incorrect. The narrator remembers another place as he sits on the train, he does not imagine some future event so (B) is incorrect. (C) is not correct because the narrator is remembering an actual place not a surreal fantasy. (D) is not correct because there is no triumph, there is simply longing. (E) is correct because the transition is between a focus on the train which is made by and inhabited by people to a focus on the wind longing for the fields and seas, the “Seas cooling warm,” and the “Islands of lofty palm trees.”
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9. The correct answer is (D) — (D) The narrator, who appears to feel trapped on a subway train, yearns for the islands. To his ear, the laughter of the children is swallowed by the deafening roar of the artificial wind created by the train making its way through the underground tunnels. However, “their laugh” does not represent the object of his yearning, so (A), (C), and (E) are incorrect. The “seas cooling warm” is one element representing his yearning, but it is not the sole object, so (B) is incorrect. (D) is the correct answer because both the seas and the “Islands of lofty palm trees” represent the narrator’s longing for another place.
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10. The correct answer is (C) — (C) Lines 1-4 describe the subway train hurtling through the tunnels of the city’s subway system while lines 10-14 describe the tranquility of a tropical island. It is logical that the city wind would take on the characteristics of city life—the rushing, the crowds, the hubbub of industry. It is just as logical that the tropical breeze would be characteristic of the more relaxed pace of life on an island. “Weary” indicates exhaustion as a result of activity while “sleepy” is, in contrast, a more benign, peaceful state; therefore (C) is the best answer.
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11. The correct answer is (C) — (C) The poem is concerned with the effect of place on the speaker’s feelings. It presents the city subway (and, as a result, life in that city) as having a negative impact on the speaker’s state of mind, but the train does not embody the speaker’s feelings so (A) is not the correct answer. There is no indication that the speaker identifies with the children on the train, so (B) is incorrect. (D) The boats waiting for the wind and the waves is not the correct answer because the narrator is conjuring a memory, not waiting. The free-floating trade winds in (E) do not reflect the speaker’s feeling. Because the speaker relates to the moaning of the wind that is trapped—just as the speaker is—in the dark underground tunnel instead of floating freely in an idyllic place, the correct answer is (C).
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12. The correct answer is (D) — (D) This question requires you to make an inference about the narrator, who uses “we” to refer to a group that includes himself. A number of phrases make it clear that the narrator is or was one of the slaves he describes, so (D) is correct. The narrator refers multiple times in the first paragraph to “our masters.” In the third paragraph, he notes that “many of us were led to think that there was little to choose between liberty and slavery. We felt, and very properly too, that we had almost as well be slaves to man as to rum.” As well, “we” are the ones who, at the end of the passage, return “back to the arms of slavery.” (A) is incorrect because the narrator’s use of the pronoun clearly and consistently describes the thoughts and actions of a specific group, and is not used to make a point about general human nature or behavior. (B) and (E) are incorrect because the Covey family are clearly identified as the slaveholders who owned the narrator, so the narrator is neither a slaveholder nor a member of the Covey family. (C) may be tempting because the passage is a criticism of the institution of slavery, and so we might be able to infer that the narrator was an abolitionist. However, the pronoun refers more specifically to slaves: the narrator and his fellow slaves may well have been abolitionists, but abolitionists as a group were not all subject to the treatment described in the passage.
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13. The correct answer is (C) — (C) This question requires you to consider the specific sense of a common word as it appears in the context of the passage. The narrator divides the slaves into groups according to how they spent their holidays: the first group worked, another group hunted, and the third played games and drink. “Class” in this context simply means “group,” “kind,” or “type.” (A), “grade,” and (B), “rank,” suggest that the narrator is ranking the groups, rating some groups more highly than others, when in fact he is just describing a range of activities. (D), “order,” describes either biological categories or formal groups like an order of monks; it is therefore not appropriate in this case. (E), “caste,” refers to a social class whose position in society is fixed by birth. While “caste” may aptly describe the class of slaves in general, it would not be appropriate for distinguishing between groups who merely spend their holidays differently than one another.
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14. The correct answer is (E) — (E) This question requires you to find and correctly interpret information explicitly provided in the passage. The answer can be found in lines 15-19: “But by far the larger part engaged in such sports and merriments as playing ball, wrestling, running foot-races, fiddling, dancing, and drinking whisky; and this latter mode of spending the time was by far the most agreeable to the feelings of our masters.” The phrase “this latter mode of spending the time” refers to the last item mentioned previously; in this sentence, that item is “drinking whisky”. Therefore, (E), drinking whisky, “was by far the most agreeable to the feelings of our masters.” The other choices all describe activities that are mentioned as ways that some spent their holidays, but only (E) is specifically described as making slaveholders happy.
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15. The correct answer is (C) — (C) This question requires you to make an inference about the views of the narrator. To answer this question you must understand the context of the phrase. Consider the tone of the essay as a whole and understand the meaning of line 22 in its entirety, “He was regarded as one who rejected the favor of his master.” The “favor” in this case refers to the holidays that the master extends to his slaves, which we are later told in lines 45-47 “are professedly a custom established by the benevolence of the slaveholder.” (C) is correct because “disingenuous” aptly suggests that the slaveholders are behaving in a duplicitous manner, which strongly agrees with the description of the holidays as “professedly” benevolent, but actually a “fraud.” It is clear throughout that the narrator is critical of the slaveholders’ granting of a “holiday” that he sees as being another way to control those enslaved, so (A) “generous” is not be correct. The sentence preceding line 22 states that “A slave who would work during the holidays was considered by our masters as scarcely deserving them.” (B) “conditional” may be tempting because the phrase appears in a context in which the narrator is discussing the slaveholders’ preferences for how their slaves should spend holidays, but it is made clear in lines 45-53 that the slaveholders don’t provide the holiday as a gift or reward that depends on the good behavior of the slaves but “because it would be unsafe” to do otherwise. (D) “well-earned” also seems to describe the holiday as a reward, and also describes it in positive terms which seem contrary to the later description of the holiday as “one of the grossest frauds committed upon the down-trodden slave.” While (E), “shameful,” has an appropriately negative tone, it isn’t very specific.
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16. The correct answer is (B) — (B) This question requires you to identify the tone of a specific portion of the passage. In these lines, soberness--normally considered a virtue--is “deemed a disgrace,” and those who who work during the holidays--and might normally be considered industrious--are “regarded as lazy indeed.” This is an inversion of normal and expected standards of behavior, which is ironic. However, the narrator doesn’t play up the irony by pointing out how it is an inversion of normal standards: he states the view matter-of-factly, leaving us to spot the irony ourselves. That delivery can aptly be described as “dry.” (B), “dry irony,” therefore provides an apt description of the tone of these lines. (A) is incorrect because, although the narrator does feel compassion for his fellow slaves, “gentle compassion” does not accurately describe the edge in the narrator’s tone in these lines. (C), “moralizing contempt,” is too strong; it suggests a strong, explicit condemnation of the slaveholders, but these lines provide a more subtle, under-the-surface criticism in this excerpt. (D), “deliberate reflection,” suggests a calm analysis of a situation. (E), “mournful elegy,” would be the tone of a sad work about the disappearance of something good.
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17. The correct answer is (C) — (C) The image of “conductors, or safety-valves” suggests a steam engine. Safety-valves on a steam engine allow excess steam to vent; without these valves, the pressure of steam would build up inside the engine until the machine burst. (The contemporary expression “to blow off steam” refers to the same process.) When the narrator describes the holidays as “safety-valves” that “carry off”, or vent, “the rebellious spirit of enslaved humanity,” he is comparing slaves’ anger to steam. Without the holidays, the rebellious spirit of slaves would build up like steam to a bursting point. With the holidays, however, the “otherwise dangerous feelings dissipate harmlessly.”
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18. The correct answer is (A) — (A) To answer this question, look back at the paragraph it concludes. The narrator has stated that holidays “carry off the rebellious spirit of enslaved humanity.” In other words, holidays allow slaves to vent their rebellious spirit. If slaves did not have those holidays, they “would be forced up to the wildest desperation;” their rebellious spirit would accumulate to dangerous levels. Therefore, the narrator says, slaveholders who would “remove or hinder the operation of those conductors,” by abolishing or restricting holidays, should beware: “in such an event, a spirit will go forth in their midst, more to be dreaded than the most appalling earthquake.” This “spirit” must correspond to the slaves’ pent-up rebellious anger. This fury and its consequences, the narrator concludes, are “more to be dreaded than the most appalling earthquake.”
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19. The correct answer is (D) — (D) The narrator argues throughout the passage that slaveholders use holidays to give their slaves a misleading sense of freedom—specifically, by making their slaves believe that freedom would be an unbearable state of permanent excess. By “plunging their slaves into the lowest depths of dissipation,” masters aim “to disgust their slaves of freedom.” The master gives the slave “a dose of vicious dissipation, artfully labelled with the name of liberty.” The result of this deception is that many slaves believe that they “had almost as well be slaves to man as to rum”—in other words, that the only alternative to slavery is permanent drunkenness, since that’s the only so-called freedom they’ve ever experienced.
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20. The correct answer is (E) — (E) Antithesis is a rhetorical figure in which a speaker contrasts two things. Often, an antithesis is presented in a single sentence with two parallel halves, where each element in one half of the sentence contrasts with an element in the other half. The antithesis in lines 64-67 can be simplified as “Thus, when the slave asks for virtuous freedom, the cunning slaveholder [...] cheats him with a dose of vicious dissipation.” The slave asks for freedom; the slaveholder gives him dissipation. These are the contrasting elements, so the antithesis of “virtuous freedom” is “vicious dissipation.”
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21. The correct answer is (B) — (B) Slaveholders, according to the narrator, give their slaves a distorted notion of freedom so that the slaves won’t want to be free. They get their slaves drunk on holiday so that the slaves will think freedom means getting drunk all the time. Their goal is “to disgust their slaves of freedom,” to make their slaves so sick of being drunk that they will be sick of freedom. Masters want their slaves to become “as glad of [holidays’] ending as of their beginning”—actually relieved that the wild party is finally over—and “upon the whole, rather glad to go” back to work. Slaveholders want their slaves to believe that permanent freedom would mean permanent drinking—too much of a good thing.
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22. The correct answer is (B) — (B) The focus in this passage is on the way slaveholders deceive and manipulate their slaves through the custom of holidays. Masters pretend that holidays are a gift coming from their “benevolence,” but this is a lie; holidays are “the result of selfishness, and one of the grossest frauds committed” upon slaves. The word “fraud” also appears at the beginning of the third paragraph; other words used to characterize the slaveholders and their actions are “plan,” “cunning,” “cheats”, and “deceived.” The slaveholders are not described as snooty or condescending, so (A) is wrong; nothing in the passage supports (C); although the masters’ deceit is cruel, the masters are not shown as violent in this passage, so (D) is wrong; and nothing supports (E).
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23. The correct answer is (A) — In answering this question you must think about how the archaic phrase “we are but just arrived” is being used in the context of the passage. Evelina wants her foster father to know that she and Mrs. Selwyn were invited to visit Mrs. Beaumont, that they accepted that invitation, and she is now reporting on what happened while they were at Mrs. Beaumont’s home, a place called Clifton Hill. Because the phrase “we have only recently arrived” means that she and Mrs. Selwyn had just returned from Clifton Hill, (A) is the logical choice.
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24. The correct answer is (C) — Considering that the entire passage is concerned with Mrs. Beaumont’s attitudes about social class, it makes sense that the “Court Calendar” referred to here is not the calendar of a legal courtroom but is, rather, the calendar of the royal court. While it may be true that Mrs. Beaumont has a busy social schedule and, if Mrs. Selwyn is to be believed, she is a biased judge who would likely prefer the company of the royal family, it is unlikely that Mrs. Beaumont keeps track of when court is in session. The correct answer is that Mrs. Beaumont “only wants to spend time with the sort of person who would be welcome at the royal court.”
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25. The correct answer is (B) — The (B) answer makes the most sense for the primary reason that Mrs. Selwyn's full sentence includes the remark, "the same pride of family which renders others imperious, is with her the motive of affability" (lines 19-20). In other words, unlike other "imperious," or aloof, aristocrats, Mrs. Beaumont is at least "affable," or friendly. She's like this because she thinks that aristocrats must "condescend" (meaning in this case simply to meet others at their level).
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26. The correct answer is (A) — In context, the word “nice” means “scrupulous.” This is a somewhat tricky question because the immediate context of the word might trick you into thinking that the more common meaning of “nice” is the best fit here. We learn that Mrs. Beaumont’s “nice notions of decorum” cause her to “load” Mrs. Selwyn with “favours.” In the short term, then, you might be tempted to pick one of the (B), (C), (D), or (E) choices. Yet the wider context of the passage casts Mrs. Beaumont not as a friendly person but rather as someone who cares a great deal about status and decorum, or proper conduct. Her “civility” is, as stated in line 21, “too formal to be comfortable and too mechanical to be flattering.” We can also rule out some of the incorrect choices by plugging them into the phrase “nice notions of decorum.” The word “affable,” for instance, doesn’t make sense as a modifier of “notions of decorum.”
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27. The correct answer is (D) — The evidence in lines like 10-11 and 19-20 indicates that Mrs. Selwyn is not impressed by aristocratic pedigree. Her recounting of Mrs. Beaumont’s ideas about “birth and virtue” has a sarcastic edge because she frames it as “she thinks proper to be of the opinion.” Her reference to “the pride of family that renders others imperious” indicates that she has criticism for other members of the aristocracy, too. (A) can be ruled out because Mrs. Selwyn does not have an aristocratic lineage, being “a mere country gentlewoman” (line 31). (B) is incorrect because Mrs. Selwyn’s opinions are in fact the opposite of these. (C) is incorrect because Mrs. Selwyn doesn’t talk about the Anvilles of the north; the young letter-writer does. (E) is incorrect because Mrs. Selwyn’s wry remarks about Mrs. Beaumont don’t indicate any relief.
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28. The correct answer is (B) — Mrs. Selwyn’s long explanation about why Mrs. Beaumont has invited her and her houseguest Evelina to Clifton hall contains a great deal of information that supports answer (B). Mrs. Beaumont’s civility toward Mrs. Selwyn is described as “too mechanical to be flattering,” and Mrs. Selwyn understands that it is driven by a desire to cancel “out an obligation, which she cannot brook being under, to one whose name is nowhere to be found in the Court Calendar.’ In other words, when Mrs. Beaumont accepted Mrs. Selwyn’s help, she mistakenly assumed that Mrs. Selwyn was of a similar status. In other words, “she had misapprehended Mrs. Selwyn’s status.”
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29. The correct answer is (C) — We can determine that (C) is correct by considering the fact that the narrator bookends her account of Mrs. Selwyn's words with apologies about their "satirical" nature, almost like an MPAA rating, but nevertheless tells the story. Crucially, she also gives an account of her own interaction with Mrs. Beaumont (lines 41-46) that basically corroborates Mrs. Selwyn's view, showing how Mrs. Beaumont is distressingly concerned with lineage.
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30. The correct answer is (E) — You can find the (E) answer by considering what you already know about Mrs. Beaumont. She's a "court calendar bigot" (8-9) with an excessive interest in the lineage of other people. You can rule out (A) because the narrator never mentions actually being in Lincolnshire - only that Mrs. Beaumont wondered if she had relatives there. (B) is incorrect because Mrs. Beaumont never asks about social customs. (C) is incorrect because there's no mention in the text of there being a relation between the narrator and Mrs. Beaumont. (D) is incorrect because it's never stated that Mrs. Beaumont asks where the narrator grew up.
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31. The correct answer is (E) — In context, it makes the most sense to say that the narrator agrees with Mrs. Selwyn but is reluctant to pass such explicit judgment on Mrs. Beaumont herself. Remember that she is writing to her foster-father, who as a “country reverend” may have high expectations for her behaviour. (A) is incorrect because the narrator quotes Mrs. Selwyn in full and never contests the description. (B) is incorrect because there is no direct evidence for the narrator’s wish to impress her foster-father in this way. (C) is incorrect because Mrs. Beaumont literally questions the narrator about her family origins, ruling out “unquestioning” acceptance. (D) is incorrect because Mrs. Selwyn never teases the narrator.
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32. The correct answer is (C) — Since the poem makes a light-hearted argument about the nature of music and poetry, and about the nature of a relationship between two people, it makes the most sense to pick “elegantly persuading.” When people make arguments (not to be confused with “having” an argument) their goal is to persuade. The poem’s language is also graceful in a way that fits the word “elegant.” (A) is incorrect because “desperately imploring” implies a neediness that isn’t apparent in the poem. (B) is incorrect because there’s no evidence here for “sarcastically mocking” language. (D) is incorrect because “fussily evaluating” suggests a tone of voice that isn’t well-suited to a poem about love. (E) is incorrect because, while the poem’s tone might aptly be called “gentle”, the poem is not specifically trying to “reassure” anyone.
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33. The correct answer is (C) — The word “agree” doesn’t have its most familiar meaning of shared consensus on an opinion. Instead, the speaker is trying to suggest a special unity between music and poetry, a concept captured by the term “accord.” (A) is incorrect because “dispute” is never a synonym for “agree”; it is instead an antonym—that is, a word that means the exact opposite. (B) is incorrect because “verify” refers to ensuring the truth of something. (D) is incorrect because “contest” has a similar meaning to “dispute.” (E) is incorrect because “coordinate” suggests that music and poetry are working together to do a specific task, which isn’t the correct sentiment here.
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34. The correct answer is (D) — The archaic phrase “As they must needs” is best paraphrased as “As they necessarily must.” You can determine this in context because it comes just before “the sister and the brother.” In other words, the speaker is establishing a reason why the two arts must agree. Of course, sisters and brothers don’t always really get along, but the speaker is using these terms more symbolically than concretely. (A) is incorrect because the words “must” and “needs” are stronger than “want,” which implies a desire for something that is not absolutely necessary. (B) is incorrect because the word “when” introduces an idea about time that isn’t present in the original “As they must needs.” (C) is incorrect because it suggests an idea about needing in general rather than a specific thing the two arts need to do. (E) is incorrect because “tend” expresses a much less strong idea than “need.”
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35. The correct answer is (C) — The central argument of these lines is that the close relationship between music and poetry brings the poetry-loving speaker and the music-loving addressee closer together. They are, in other words, more similar than it might seem. (A) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t state anything about how each person feels toward themselves. (B) is incorrect because the two people are not identified as a brother and sister; only music and poetry are identified as such. (D) is incorrect because the poem doesn’t say anything about common themes of music or poetry. (E) is incorrect because the poem argues for the similarity between music and poetry, not difference. The poem also does not express the idea that the two people have an unpredictable relationship.
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36. The correct answer is (A) — The language in these lines is very dense and difficult, making the process of elimination a good strategy. You can eliminate (B) because there’s no evidence in the poem that Spenser is self-aggrandizing. The testmaker hopes that you misinterpret the word “conceit,” which here means “concept” or “conception” rather than “arrogance.” You can eliminate (C) because the evidence doesn’t suggest that Spenser’s poetry is a failure. The speaker indicates that Spenser’s poetry is “dear” to him, and that it “needs no defence.” You can eliminate (D) because, as with (B), the testmaker wants you to misinterpret the word “conceit.” There’s nothing specific here about Spenser's persona as an author. You can eliminate (E) because the lines don’t state that there’s no point in interpreting Spenser’s work; rather, they state that there’s no need to defend it—a subtle but important difference. This leaves you with (A). Since you’ve ruled out the options which involve the wrong meaning of the word “conceit,” it should be a bit easier to see how the word works in this case. Here “deep conceit” means something like “profound concept,” and “passing all conceit” means “surpassing our ability to conceive it.”
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37. The correct answer is (B) — The key to answering this question is noticing that “immersed” is the only word that makes sense in reference to a positive experience of art. The speaker loves poetry, so when the god Phoebus sings in verse he is overtaken by strong positive emotions. (A) is incorrect because “stifled” has negative connotations. (C)’s connotations are even more negative. (D) is not necessarily negative, but doesn’t fit well in reference to art. (E) is incorrect because “choked” once again doesn’t convey a positive experience of art.
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38. The correct answer is (C) — The speaker expresses a love for poetry and for the person he addresses in the poem. (A) is incorrect because the words “Then must the love be great ‘twixt thee and me” and “both in thee remain” indicate the speaker’s love for the person addressed. (B) is incorrect because the speaker attributes the love of music to the person addressed only. (D) is incorrect because the speaker also expresses his love for poetry, citing his appreciation of Spenser and Phoebus’s singing. (E) is incorrect because, once again, the speaker attributes the love of music to the person addressed in the poem.
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39. The correct answer is (B) — The poet is addressing a specific person for whom he feels affection. You can determine this by noting the language of love and admiration directed towards the “you” figure, and also by paying attention to how specifically that person is characterized. The “you” loves music, and even has a favorite musician, Dowland. With these facts in mind you can safely eliminate the other choices. (A) is incorrect because an “abstract personification” would not likely be described with such specificity. (C) is incorrect because Phoebus is referred to in the third person, not the second. (D) is incorrect because it would be wrong for the speaker to assume that anyone who reads the poem likes music more than poetry, and loves the music of Dowland. The details are once again too specific. (E) is incorrect because, as with (C), Spenser is only addressed in the third person, not the second.
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40. The correct answer is (A) — (A) The key to deciphering the main theme of this poem lies in the idea that “the mind of winter” (line 1) does not “think of misery in the sound of the wind” (lines 7-8). These lines communicate that an individual’s perspective shapes his own perception and experience. Even in the midst of a cold and frigid landscape, it is up to the individual to choose to project misery onto that landscape. An individual can choose a philosophical and objective perspective as represented by the line “the nothing that is not there and the nothing that is (line 15). Although, nature is a secondary theme in the poem, the poem does not address (B) the power of people over nature or the (C) unlimited power of nature. (D) The hubris of humanity and theme of (E) reason versus imagination are not addressed in the poem.
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41. The correct answer is (C) — (C) The speaker is able to look out on a cold, wintry landscape and remain detached from emotion. Evidence that the tone is detached or distant can be found in the line the “mind of winter” (line 1). Philosophical musings can be found in the final stanza: “And, nothing himself, beholds/Nothing that is not there and the nothing that is (lines 14-15). The speaker is able to use the power of perspective and detach from the natural world. (A) Threatening and aggressive and (B)playful and lighthearted do not accurately capture the tone of the poem. Although the speaker describes a cold winter scene, the tone of the poem itself is not (D) cold and apprehensive. (E) Apathetic and reserved is incorrect because the tone of the poem is not lazy and slow to reveal emotions and opinions.
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42. The correct answer is (B) — (B) In context, the word “regard” (line 2) most likely means “observe.” The speaker is looking at “frost and boughs” and noticing and perceiving his natural surroundings without judgement. Approve (A), admire (E), and judge (C) are incorrect because the speaker is not assigning a positive or negative to his environment. Gauge (D) is incorrect because the speaker is not estimating or measuring his natural environment.
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43. The correct answer is (D) — (D) The speaker sees the perspective and interpretation of the listener as the cause of “misery in the sound of the wind” (line 8). The main theme of the poem is the power of perspective. The speaker believes the listener has a choice of perspective and can choose to assign “misery” to “the sound of the wind.” (A) the painful frigidity of the winter wind, (C) the lonely sound of the wind blowing, and (E) the contrast with the January sun are all incorrect because they list the physical environment as a cause of the “misery.” (D) Nature’s ability to cause harm is incorrect because it is not an idea addressed in the poem
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44. The correct answer is (A) — (A) “One” (line 1) is the subject of the main clause in the sentence formed by this poem. “A mind of winter” (line 8) is an object of this main clause. “Misery” (line 8) and “the sound of the wind” (line 8) are both part of prepositions. “Nothing” ( line 14) is not part of the main clause.
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45. The correct answer is (A) — (A) The function of the final stanza in the argument of the poem is to show that another listener could listen to the same wind and hear no suffering. This is shown by the lines: “beholds nothing that is not there and nothing that is.” (14-15) This listener is not projecting “misery” or anything else onto the wind he hears.
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46. The correct answer is (B) — (B) The speaker of the poem is addressing an unspecified general audience. There is nothing in the tone of the poem to suggest that the speaker is addressing someone who was once familiar like an “estranged friend.” There are no details in the poem to indicate that the speaker is addressing “an adventurous child,” “a small community,” or “a local huntsman.”
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47. The correct answer is (E) — (E) The author uses all of these literary devices except “apostrophe,” the address to an absent person or concept. The author uses “assonance,” the repetition of vowel sounds throughout the poem as exemplified by “snow,” “cold,” “behold.” The author uses “metaphor,” speaking of one thing in terms of another thing in order to comparison between the two in the poem. The “snow man” and “the mind of winter” can be considered metaphors for a detached and philosophical perspective. The author uses “imagery,” visually descriptive or figurative language, to set the winter scene. “Pine-trees crusted with snow,” “junipers shagged with ice,” and “spruces rough in the distant glitter” are all an example of imagery in this poem. The author uses “symbolism,” or a word, phrase, object, or situation which in turn signifies or represents something in addition to its literal meaning, throughout this poem. “The snow man” becomes a symbol for someone who is able to detach from human emotion and not project misery onto his environment. In lines 7-8, “the snow man” can listen to the cold winter wind and not feel miserable, or think the wind is miserable either.
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48. The correct answer is (D) — (D) Hank’s cheerful attitude actively opposes Defago’s reticence by insisting that there “ain’t no speshul reason” that their planned path has remained desolate this season, going against Defago’s silence and fearful facial expressions. Since the passage is concerned primarily with the men’s plans, it makes sense that two characters representing opposing sides about this present the passage’s main tension. (A) is not correct because the night’s darkness is simply an expected outcome of the fire finally dying; no one in the passage attempts to stop this impending darkness, and in fact seem willing to allow its arrival by not being “troubled to stir” this fire. (B) is incorrect because although the sound of Defago’s song and the forest’s silence are opposites, they are never depicted as actively working or strained against one another, which “tension” implies. (C) is incorrect because although the fire is dying, the wind is said in this passage to be minimal, not powerful as this option states. (E) is incorrect because the men and the natural setting are never shown to be in each other’s way, but merely co existing.
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49. The correct answer is (A) — (A) To answer this question, look at the lines surrounding the quote in question. The opening paragraph describes the men as “despondent, for a week had passed without a single sign of recent moose discovering itself” (lines 2-3), which is followed by descriptions of the men being tired from their day’s work. The aforementioned line tells us that the men have made no progress, and have become despondent as a result, which suggests a “dispirited” attitude and aligns with their inattention to the dying fire, which would require physical effort and mental care. (B) is not correct because nowhere in the passage is it mentioned that the men are afraid of wildlife or of their fire attracting anything. (C) is not correct because while this option states that the fire’s flames are harsh, the passage notes that the fire is dying, so it is unlikely that its flames, although probably still hot, would be a danger to any of the men. (D) is incorrect because this option implies that the men are lazy and prone to pushing tasks to other members of their party; there is never an instance of this behaviour in this passage, only that the men are tired and discouraged. (E) is not correct because throughout the passage, it is hinted that both Defago and Hank know there is something dangerous either in or about the woods the men are in, so it is unlikely that all the of the men would be eager to to see their surroundings in the dark, which would impair their sight and defenses.
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50. The correct answer is (B) — (B) This part of the passage is implying that Defago’s expression is fleeting, as the following information tells us that the expression passed “not so quickly, however, that the three other men had not time to catch it”, implying it was fast, which “a flash” aligns with. The second half of this simile also matches this option, since firelight is illuminating, which has a similar meaning to “revealing”. (A) is incorrect because this option claims the simile refers to the sudden rise in temperature of Defago’s face, while the simile is actually describing a facial expression. (C) is not correct because the simile refers to Defago’s expression, not his efforts (failing or otherwise) to keep the fire burning. (D) is incorrect because __________. (E) is not correct because the fact that an action of Defago’s is like something natural does not necessarily mean Defago has a connection with nature.
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51. The correct answer is (B) — (B) The first mention of Hank in this passage depicts him interupting Defago’s story multiple times to claim it is inaccurate; this, paired with the claim that Hank “broke in suddenly” (line 18) to the men’s silence characterize Hank as brusque, or abrupt. Then, towards the end of the scene, Hank exhibits more comforting behaviour, notably when he explains to the men that “there ain’t no speshul reason” (line 64) why a part of the woods the men are in has yet to be explored that winter. His tone here is reassuring, as this answer option states, as the narrator claims his line is an attempt to “humour him [Defago] a bit” (line 63) and is characterized as “encouraging” (line 69). (A) is incorrect because although Hank does display knowledge of the wood’s landscape when he is proposing the group’s next moves, he doesn’t begin to obsess over the details of the men’s trip, which “pedantic” implies. (C) is not correct because Hank is never described as telling lies or saying untrue things, as “dishonest” would imply, and does not struggle to defend any viewpoint he holds, as “defensive” means. (D) is incorrect because although it is probable that Hank has a strong conviction for the hunting party’s route during his instructions to the rest of the men, he is never depicted as being uninterested or not invested in the discussion later in the passage, as “”apathetic” would imply. (E) is not correct because although Hank’s interruption of Defago’s story at the beginning of the passage is certainly rude and “in bad humour” (line 4), this action is not strong enough to be characterized as “abusive”, which would require much more harsh behaviour from Hank.
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52. The correct answer is (A) — (A) There are multiple instances of human-like actions used to describe nature throughout this passage, such as “ice was already forming stealthily” in line 15, and “The silence of the vast listening forest stole forward and enveloped them” in line 17. There are no words in this passage that form a sound, making (B) incorrect. There are a few times in this passage where imagery is used to describe certain elements of the passage, such as Hank’s tone (line 65) or Defago’s expression (line 50), however this does not describe the natural setting as the question asks for, making (C) incorrect. The author never compares any elements of the natural setting to anything else in order to describe it more clearly, either by explicitly stating a likeness or by assigning labels or characteristics in a non-literal way, so (D) and (E) are incorrect.
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53. The correct answer is (B) — (B) Dr. Cathcart’s feelings as a result of his notice of Defago’s expressions are all fearful- they cause him “a passing uneasiness” (line 58) and “disquieted him more than he cared to admit” (line 77). Dr. Cathcart here is explicitly expressing a fear that both Defago and Hank only hint at, which helps to inform the reader that there is something dangerous that they will soon encounter, which “ominous” implies. Even though Dr. Cathcart is not the only one to notice one of Defago’s unnerving looks, him and his nephew are the only characters to comment on this topic, so to say the entire party is emotionally sensitive would be taking characteristics of two characters and applying them to the rest of the scene’s characters without any additional evidence, making (A) incorrect. (C) is incorrect because the mere fact that Dr. Cathcart noticed and reflected on Defago’s facial expressions is not enough evidence to claim that the two characters have a close relationship. (D) is incorrect because including instances of body language conveying emotions only gives evidence to the fact that the author believes this is possible, not that this is the only possible way to express emotions. (E) is not correct because mere facial expressions are not enough to support a claim that a character is ‘overly sensitive’. Dr. Cathcart’s interpretations never include any opinions that Defago’s facial expressions are too intense for the situation causing them.
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54. The correct answer is (C) — (C) The passage opens with the fact that the men have not found any moose in a week, and later shows Hank instructing the other men in the party on where to go to catch moose. Both these facts provide evidence that the men’s endeavour has been unsuccessful so far, but that they are hoping it will, which this answer option states. (A) is incorrect because while it would be accurate to describe the hunting trip as taxing, the goal of the trip is to hunt and catch moose, which may not necessarily ‘toughen up’ the party’s members. (B) is incorrect because the trip is not characterized as relaxing in any way, and none of the men’s professions are mentioned, let alone characterized as stressful. (D) is not correct because the excursion is meant to catch moose, not bond, and none of the characters are said to be enthusiastic about hunting. (E) is incorrect because none of the men’s families are mentioned, and it is never stated that the hunting party is sure to provide an income for the men.
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55. The correct answer is (E) — Madame Malateste uses the phrase “employ the thoughts with outward objects” to convey the act of distracting oneself. One’s thoughts are “employed” if they are “occupied” by other things. (A) and (C) are incorrect because they have connotations of employing a person in a job, rather than employing thoughts in an activity. (B) is incorrect because it implies using one’s thoughts productively rather than simply distracting them. (D) is incorrect because it is not similar in meaning to “employ.”
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56. The correct answer is (D) — Madame Malateste indicates that doctors recommend she keep “good company” and go “dancing” to get exercise. She seems to be speaking ironically, since dancing and spending time with friends is unlikely to be an actual remedy for any physical ailment, and since Malateste is unconvinced. (A) is incorrect because she does not seem to be worried. (B) is incorrect because her husband does not indicate he is concerned about her health. (C) is incorrect because she is not oblivious to her husband’s qualms, she simply dismisses them. (E) is incorrect because she is not eager and does not give many details on her regimen, speaking only vaguely.
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57. The correct answer is (C) — In this line Madame Malateste explains the reasoning for dancing being good exercise, namely that “great company” meets together which “adds pleasure to the labour [of dancing]” which would otherwise be difficult (she is, as mentioned earlier, speaking ironically, as dancing would not normally be considered “labour”).
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58. The correct answer is (B) — An allegory is a metaphor which symbolizes a pertinent issue and is often used to convey a moral viewpoint. When a character’s name reflects the primary attribute which they symbolize, this can be said to be “allegorical.”
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59. The correct answer is (C) — Madame Malateste speaks ironically towards her husband despite his obvious discontent, and then makes a strong declaration that she will not change her behavior just to “spare [his] purse or to please [his] humor.” This attitude could be best described as “defiant.” (A) is incorrect because she does not seem particularly happy or pleasant. (B) is incorrect because she speaks quite a bit and does not remain silent. (D) is incorrect because she seems quite animated and energetic. (E) is incorrect because she does not indicate any jealousy of envy.
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60. The correct answer is (A) — Gambling and dancing with friends are raucous and bawdy behavior, which Malateste seems to disapprove of. He questions why she behaves this way and then laments that his other wife did not behave this way, indicating that he’s displeased with her improper behavior. (B) is incorrect because he mentions that she is unlike his first wife, not similar. (C) is incorrect because Madame Malateste’s behavior should be good for her health, and he doesn’t seem particularly concerned about her medical issues. (D) is incorrect because she is not oblivious to his desires, she simply chooses to disobey them. (E) is incorrect because her behavior is not “worrying.”
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61. The correct answer is (D) — Madame Malateste mentions that her husband’s first wife “died… with melancholy” while in her case “mirth and good company will keep me alive.” She then implies that forgoing those enjoyable pastimes would be equivalent to killing herself. (A), (C) and (D) are incorrect because she only mentions each of these themes only once in passing, and not directly in reference to happiness or sadness. (B) is incorrect because although Malateste’s first wife “died in her youth” and Madame Malateste intends to “live while [she is] old,” these mentions of age are not directly correlated with happiness or sadness and not part of the main thrust of her argument.
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