Question Explanations For

Reading Practice Section (Reading Test)

1.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In lines 49-51, Du Bois says he “loved” his school and praises the “fine faith” his children had in him. Although the first paragraph indicates he was glad to find work, and the third paragraph details the poor working conditions, (A) is incorrect because neither of those things is central to how he thinks about what he actually did while teaching. Although he may have worried about his students’ expectations, there is no specific evidence for that in the passage, so (B) is incorrect. The tone of the last paragraph shows he cared very much about his work with students, so (C) is incorrect.

2.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The only answer that talks about “his work as a teacher” generally is (C). (A), (B), and (D) all refer to specific experiences he had, and do not provide support for the fact that he was proud of his school and felt respected by his students.

3.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Du Bois says that “the man who has never hunted a country school has something to learn of the pleasures of the chase,” indicating that he believes that hunting for a country school involves difficulties not encountered in hunting animals. (A) is incorrect; he never implies hunting for schools is dangerous. (B) is incorrect; he says nothing about hunting for schools and hunting for animals having any similarities. (C) is incorrect; he does not say anything about enjoying hunting schools or hunting animals.

4.

The Correct Answer is (A) — “Beyond railways” means the towns had no readily accessible transportation to other places; furthermore, if “the coming of a stranger was an event,” and “men lived and died” in a single place without visiting anywhere else, then the communities he was seeing had little contact with the outside world, meaning they were small and contained, so (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; although he does mention “varmints” and rattlesnakes, he does not focus on the dangers those things might pose. (C) is incorrect; he says nothing about death rates. (D) is incorrect; although Du Bois indicates that outsiders visited rarely enough to be an event, “rarely” is not as absolute as “never.”

5.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “virtue” with “benefit” in the sentence makes sense. (A), (B), and (C) are all characteristics of human beings, so they cannot be correct because the “They” in the sentence refers to benches: a bench cannot have bravery, character, or decency.

6.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Du Bois “trembled” in response to the “patter of little feet,” which is a reaction associated with anxiety and anticipation. Although trembling might result from “unconstrained elation,” Du Bois’s language does not convey the unambiguous joy implied by “elation,” so (B) is incorrect. The emotions listed in answer choices (C) and (D) are not associated with trembling, so (C) and (D) are incorrect.

7.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Josie responded to hearing of the “errand” by telling him of somewhere he could find employment; it makes sense that she would do that in response to learning that he was looking for such a place. (B) is incorrect; there is nothing in the passage about rebuilding a local schoolhouse. (C) is incorrect; Du Bois makes no mention of any such message. (D) is incorrect; the errand is Du Bois’s (“my errand”), not Josie's, and although she helps him, she does not do so by offering to do a task for him.

8.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 53-66 are devoted to describing how in response to the school “dwindling away,” Du Bois would personally speak to families about their children’s absences until he felt secure the students would return soon; (B) lines up with that. (A) and (C) are both contradicted by the fact that his students’ absences caused him to take action; if he were relieved or apathetic, he would not try to do anything about them. (D) is incorrect; nothing in the passage indicates anger at his students, and he understands that when students leave it is usually the result of their parents’ choices, not their own.

9.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This sentence briefly summarizes Du Bois’s active response to student absences, which shows he felt compelled to act about them. (A) has nothing to do with student absences. (C) and (D) are both experiences he had while responding to student absences, but they are about specific families and do not indicate anything about his general response to student absences.

10.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “toiling” with “plodding” in the sentence makes sense. (A), (B), and (C) are all things that cannot be done “up the hill,” and so are incorrect.

11.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Du Bois uses the argument of Cicero’s “pro Archia Poeta” to convince a family that they should continue sending their children to school despite their “doubts […] about book-learning”; the “pro Archia Poeta” must therefore be in favor of “book-learning” and education. (A) and (B) both deal with topics irrelevant to Du Bois’s goal in talking to the family, and so are incorrect. (D) is incorrect; if the “pro Archia Poeta” were an incomplete homework assignment, Du Bois would not be able to put it into simple English, as it would not exist.

12.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Roosevelt says that it is “needless” to go over what his Administration has been doing, indicating that he does not feel the need to advocate for his achievements and thus that those achievements speak for themselves; (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; although he does feel his term was productive, and he does refer to “over-zealous friends” who may “exaggerate,” he does not think they can “mislead the American people” and therefore does not consider them a significant influence. (C) is incorrect; although he says there has been “a struggle,” he also says he has given the Nation what it wanted in 1932, which indicates he feels his term has produced good results. (D) is incorrect; he does not imply that the electorate is deeply divided.

13.

The Correct Answer is (A) — His statement that nothing can “conceal or blur or smear” his record is what indicates he believes the record can speak for itself, so (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; it refers to what the American people wanted when his term began, which predates any results of his term. (C) is incorrect; it refers to his supporters but not to his achievements in office. (D) is incorrect; it refers to the experiences of the nation during his term, but not his term’s results.

14.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Roosevelt connects his “record of peace” to a “well-founded expectation of future peace”; he draws a direct line between his past accomplishments and what he hopes to accomplish in the future, so (A) is correct. (B) and (C) are incorrect; he makes no mention of his failures. (D) is incorrect; he makes no reference to the criticisms of voters.

15.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Roosevelt refers to a previous “hear-nothing, see-nothing, do-nothing Government” with which the Nation was “afflicted,” and which some want to “restore” out of a belief that the best government is the “most indifferent,” so (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; Roosevelt does not directly refer to the opposition party. (C) is incorrect; Roosevelt does not refer specifically to other leaders. (D) is incorrect; Roosevelt uses no statistics.

16.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In this quote, Roosevelt is contrasting his Administration’s hard work, symbolized by the image of “rolling up its sleeves,” with the indifference of the previous administration, symbolized by “twirling its thumbs,” which suggests doing nothing productive; (D) is correct. (A), (B), and (C) all do not directly promote his Administration, and so cannot support an answer relating to how Roosevelt promoted his Administration; they are incorrect.

17.

The Correct Answer is (A) — By using the word “win” twice (“in a mood to win”; “did win”) and then immediately reusing that same construction, Roosevelt emphasizes the American people’s will and capacity for victory in the past and the future; (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; Roosevelt explicitly says they are in the same mood, namely, a mood to win. (C) is incorrect; Roosevelt is talking about the public, not about his own goals. (D) is incorrect; although he does state that the issue has changed, the repeated words asked about in this question refer not to change but to continuity.

18.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Roosevelt immediately answers that they wanted peace, and later refers to his own “record of peace,” implying that he gave Americans what they wanted; (A) is the correct answer. (B) is incorrect; he answers it but states that the goal has been met, not that it will only be met at some future time after his reelection. (C) is incorrect; he gives an answer, meaning that he is not forcing anyone else to answer. (D) is incorrect; he gives one specific answer, which may or may not match what his listeners would come up with on their own.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Replacing “springs” with “arises” in the sentence makes sense; (C) is correct. Peace is an abstract thing, so “the peace” he refers to cannot leap, vault, or bound because those are physical movements; therefore, (A), (B), and (D) are incorrect.

20.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Immediately before he refers to “that army,” Roosevelt details the kinds of people who supported his election four years earlier (lines 49-62), so D is correct. (A) is incorrect; he has made no reference to military activity. (B) is incorrect; he would not “lead” his own opposition. (C) is incorrect; although Roosevelt may hope to recruit new voters, if they are new voters they would not have been part of the “army” he led in 1932.

21.

The Correct Answer is (A) — If farmers’ acres yielded “only bitterness,” that means they yielded nothing else, which means that the crops they would have planted had failed and could not be harvested; (A) is correct. (B) is incorrect; although Roosevelt supporters may have opposed the previous administration’s agricultural policies, the text itself does not make any reference to their opinion on the previous administration. (C) is incorrect; these farmers have “stood with” Roosevelt since 1932, and thus most likely would have supported his agricultural policies. (D) is incorrect; the acres did not yield only bitter-tasting crops, they yielded only bitterness, meaning no crops.

22.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Roosevelt is calling the previous administration “indifferent” to demonstrate how they were worse for the American people than his administration was; “apathetic” has an appropriately negative connotation. (A), (B), and (C) all have neutral or slightly positive connotations, and thus are incorrect because they do not match the intent of the sentence.

23.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Both passages close with a specific recommendation about whether genome sequencing is ready for widespread use or not. Neither author discusses new genome sequencing techniques or how to reduce the existing risks of genome sequencing, so (A) and (B) are incorrect. The author of Passage 2 does talk about the costs of genome sequencing, but the author of Passage 1 does not, and it is a supporting point, not a primary concern, in Passage 2, so (D) is incorrect.

24.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The author of Passage 1 strongly supports genome sequencing, as evidenced by the author’s conclusion that it may provide a “crucial first step” for helping people help themselves, but also recognizes its limitations, as demonstrated by the acknowledgement in line 24 that it “isn’t perfect.” (B) is incorrect; the author makes no criticisms of genome sequencing that do not apply to other procedures. (C) is incorrect; we do not have enough information from this passage to determine whether the author is ignoring other criticisms or not. (D) is incorrect; the author clearly takes a side in the debate on genome sequencing, and is therefore not neutral.

25.

The Correct Answer is (D) — This line refers to both the “incredible science” that makes the author a strong proponent of genome sequencing, and the limitations the author acknowledges, such as not being able to predict every condition someone might get. (A) is incorrect; it is a rhetorical question that does not reflect the author’s own stance. (B) is incorrect; it is a statement of fact that does not tell us anything about the author’s opinion. (C) is incorrect; it demonstrates one of the reasons the author supports genome sequencing, but not any of the potential limitations the author acknowledges.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The author does this in lines 26-30. (B) is incorrect; the author does not state that error-free tests are impossible. (C) is incorrect; the author argues genome sequencing will lead to better diagnoses (line 24-26), not too many diagnoses. (D) is incorrect; the author of Passage 2 does this, not Passage 1.

27.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The author of Passage 1 suggests that genome sequencing will be more reliable in the future in lines 31-33; the author of Passage 2 does so in lines 45-48. (A) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 does believe that healthy individuals should have their genomes sequenced, as demonstrated in lines 14-16. (C) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 does not mention costs. (D) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 says many DNA combinations have been identified as indicators of disease, and does not suggest there is controversy over which those are or whether they are truly dangerous.

28.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author of Passage 1 suggests that genome sequencing will be more reliable in the future in lines 31-33; the author of Passage 2 does so in lines 45-48. (A) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 does believe that healthy individuals should have their genomes sequenced, as demonstrated in lines 14-16. (C) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 does not mention costs. (D) is incorrect; the author of Passage 1 says many DNA combinations have been identified as indicators of disease, and does not suggest there is controversy over which those are or whether they are truly dangerous.

29.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “reflect” with “reveal” in the sentence makes sense. (B) is incorrect; the information found in a genome cannot “reconsider” anything, as it is not a person. (C) and (D) are incorrect; the health risks are not being copied by the gene, which is what both of those suggestions imply, but are being caused and shown by it.

30.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The author mentions his own genetic mutations immediately after pointing out that “we all” have genetic mutations; he is using himself as an example of the fact that they are so common as to be basically universal. (B) is incorrect; although he does say that most genetic mutations are harmless, the context of the sentence is not a discussion of how many of them are dangerous. (C) is incorrect; the author does not name any genetic mutations specifically, so this is not an example of well-recognized gene mutations. (D) is incorrect; the author is arguing that readers should not have their genomes sequenced.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The mutations in question cannot be immediately determined to be dangerous or not because they are new and have therefore not been studied. (A) is incorrect; “innovative” implies a degree of consciousness that genetic mutations do not have. (B) is incorrect; genetic mutations have no “conventions” to adhere to, and therefore cannot be unconventional. (D) is incorrect; “fresh” has a positive connotation which does not match the neutral connotation of the original sentence.

32.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Repeating “soon” emphasizes the fact that the things being discussed are not true right now. (B) is incorrect; the use of “soon” suggests that research is already proceeding at a rapid pace. (C) is incorrect; the author believes that genome sequencing is not ready for widespread use. (D) is incorrect; the predictions the author makes are all positive, not things that would cause concern.

33.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The first three paragraphs discuss the condition facing all Elizabethan actors, and the last three paragraphs explore Shakespeare’s acting style within these conditions. (B) is incorrect; at no point does the author list criticisms of Shakespeare’s acting. (C) is incorrect; the author does mention stars like Will Kemp and Richard Burbage, but only very briefly. (D) is incorrect; Shakespeare’s acting style is not discussed until line 34.

34.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The author uses historical facts such as the description of Elizabethan theater in paragraph 2, and Shakespeare’s status among The King’s Men in lines 32-40. At no point does the author use hypothetical scenarios or personal anecdotes, so (A) and (D) are incorrect. Although the facts used may have resulted from research that produced data, or numerical facts, the passage does not directly reference any data, so (B) is incorrect.

35.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The quote includes information about supporting actors in Elizabethan theater, the name of such an actor, and a fact about the average length of their parts. (A) is incorrect; it refers to contemporary readers of Shakespeare, not historical facts about theater. (C) is incorrect; it is an inference based on available sources, not a definite fact. (D) is incorrect; it is a quote from a play, not a historical fact.

36.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The description of Elizabethan audiences in paragraph 1 uses the word “loudly” to describe their actions, which supports the idea that they were boisterous, and says they “criticized freely,” which means they had strong opinions and shared them. (A) is incorrect; the text refers to “playgoers of all classes,” so they were not all poor. (B) is incorrect; the passage does not refer to the size of the audience, and “reserved” means quiet, which does not match the description of the audience. (D) is incorrect; if they “often hissed” (line 3), they were often dissatisfied and therefore not easily entertained.

37.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The previous question asks about Elizabethan audiences, and the quote here directly describes Elizabethan audiences. (B) is incorrect; it discusses Elizabethan actors. (C) is incorrect; it discusses Shakespeare specifically. (D) is incorrect; it discusses Elizabethan plays.

38.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The author refers to the “subtle craft of the character actor” (lines 49-50) as not “constantly reminding everyone that you, the actor, are busy playing a role” (lines 46-47); this suggests the author admires actors who allow the audience to forget they are watching someone acting. (A) is incorrect; the author does not mention the modesty of actors off the stage. (B) is incorrect; the author does not say that principal players are necessarily better than others. (C) is incorrect; although he mentions that the “clownish antics” of Will Kemp drew audiences, he does not say that they made for good acting.

39.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Replacing “attest” with “testify” in the sentence makes sense. The word must make sense used right before “to his skills.” You cannot “authenticate to” or “witness to” anything, so (A) and (C) are incorrect. You can “swear to” something, but swearing is something a person does, and the subject of this sentence is not a person but a fact, so (B) is incorrect.

40.

The Correct Answer is (A) — It is possible to delete certain content in a play, and would make sense if you wanted to avoid offending the queen. You cannot hit, proceed, or inflict content in a play, so (B), (C), and (D) are incorrect.

41.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The author mentions that Will Kemp and Richard Burbage were “box-office draws,” meaning that they were very popular with audiences, and Shakespeare was not like them in this way. (A) is incorrect; the author says nothing about their relative acting abilities. (B) is incorrect; the author is not listing all The King’s Men, only giving a few examples. (C) is incorrect; while Richard Burbage’s “brooding heroics” may have suited “kingly parts,” Will Kemp’s “clownish antics” probably would not, and the only actor the passage says played “kingly parts” was Shakespeare (lines 40-43).

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The quote in question comes after the author has praised the “extraordinary self-restraint” of character actors, and supports the value of that style. (A) is incorrect; although Shakespeare may have been a character actor, the fact that he wrote this line into a play does not support that one way or another. (B) is incorrect; although Shakespeare may have hated overly dramatic performances, the author is talking about his own opinions about acting, not Shakespeare’s. (C) is incorrect; the quote says nothing about Elizabethan acting, and the popularity of the “clownish” Will Kemp suggests subtlety was not necessary for success in Elizabethan acting.

43.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage starts out by saying what scientists believed for decades (paragraph 1), and then shows evidence that contradicts that belief starting with the “rude surprise” mentioned in line 25. (A) is incorrect; the passage is not advocating for readers to do anything in particular. (C) is incorrect; although the passage does describe a few experiments, they are not covered in detail and are specifically used to highlight how they contradict previous assumptions. (D) is incorrect; although the predictions suggested by the passage suggest that farmers may face difficulties in the future, that is only mentioned in the last paragraph.

44.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage states in the first sentence that fossil fuel consumption would have “one enormous benefit,” which is what this answer choice says. (A) is incorrect; the passage refers to “all the problems” fossil fuel consumption was “expected to cause” (lines 2-3). (C) is incorrect; the passage says that scientists may have overestimated the benefits of carbon dioxide for crops, which researchers found to be “half as large” as expected (lines 24-26). (D) is incorrect; the passage says scientists have been studying the effect of carbon dioxide on crops “for decades.”

45.

The Correct Answer is (A) — This sentence explicitly states the previous answer. (B) is incorrect; it merely describes part of an experiment, not something about scientists at large. (C) is incorrect; it describes the effect some researchers have had, not scientists generally. (D) is incorrect; it discusses the implications of recent evidence, not a truth about scientists.

46.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The new studies found that the expected bump was “half as large,” which is a modest effect but still in line with previous findings. (A) is incorrect; the newer studies did not find exactly what would be expected from the findings of previous studies. (C) is incorrect; the newer studies did find a bump, which means the previous studies have not totally been refuted. (D) is incorrect; the effect found was half as large, not bigger and therefore stronger.

47.

The Correct Answer is (B) — This quote talks about the findings of the newer studies in the context of what would have been expected from the previous studies. (A) is incorrect; it talks about the fact that newer studies were done, but not what their results were. (C) is incorrect; although this does refer to both older studies and newer studies, it does not make the connection between them explicit the way (B) does and therefore is not the best evidence. (D) is incorrect; this is a specific finding that does not contain a connection to the previous studies.

48.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The “rude surprise” was very serious, or grave, news for the effects of fossil fuel consumption. (A), (B), and (C) are all words that would typically describe people and their actions, not scientific facts like the “surprise” in question, so they are incorrect.

49.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Replacing “avert” with “prevent” in the sentence makes sense. The action is being done to “food shortages.” (B), (C), and (D) are all actions done to living things, and a food shortage is not a living thing, so they are incorrect.

50.

The Correct Answer is (C) — This part of the passage states Illinois researchers are “starting to believe that the positives of CO2 are unlikely to outweigh the negatives," which supports answer (C) and predictions for the future. (A) is incorrect because lines 44-47 do not discuss research techniques. (B) is incorrect because lines 44-47 do not discuss extreme weather. (D) is incorrect because lines 44-47 do not discuss further crop research.

51.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage states that temperatures above 84 degrees for corn and 86 degrees for soybeans cause yields to fall sharply, and the graphic shows that as temperatures rise towards 100, yields fall to zero, meaning that those plants do not grow. (A) is incorrect; the graphic shows that corn and soybeans grow best at similar if not identical temperatures. (C) is incorrect; the graphics show that very low temperatures also produce yields of zero. (D) is incorrect; the passage and graphic both state that very high temperatures cause yields to decrease, not increase.

52.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Both graphs only show yields above zero at temperatures above 50 degrees, so corn and soybeans cannot grow at 50 degrees. (A) is incorrect; the graph shows that soybeans cannot grow at 50 degrees. (B) is incorrect; the graph shows that corn can indeed grow at 70 degrees. (D) is incorrect; the graph shows that both corn and soybeans can grow at 70 degrees.