Question Explanations For

SAT Practice Test 2 (Reading Test)

1.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The question asks about the main purpose of the passage. (A) is too broad; the passage only talks about scrap, not entire economies. While environmental policies are mentioned, the passage does not criticize them, so we can rule out (B). (C) is correct. Opinions are present in the passage, but they are not about metal costs (D).

2.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Look for the evidence in the text. Nothing about over-emphasis is mentioned, so (A) is incorrect. (B) is incorrect because the passage explains that the recycling industry has a significant, rather than insignificant, impact on other industries. The passage explains that the recycling industry benefits developing economies, so (C) is incorrect. Both the introduction and the conclusion suggest that the global recycling industry deserves more recognition; therefore, (D) is the correct answer.

3.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) is correct, because lines 13-14 convey the sense of under-appreciation from the previous question, using terms like "unsung" and "under-appreciated."

4.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look for content about Minter’s book or writing. In lines 59-63, the author describes Minter as an "authorial, engaging guide." The negative descriptions in (B) and (D) can be ruled out. (A) and (C) convey positive opinions; however, option (C)'s "worshipful" is extreme. Thus, (A) is the correct answer.

5.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The passage says that Shanghai has ten subway lines. (A), (B), and (C), are incorrect because they involve some form of bragging rather than having, and the verb should be transitive. The only option that is a transitive verb that also means having is (D).

6.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage mentions a lack of resources in China but not a depletion in Asia, so (A) is incorrect. Lines 25-39 explain how construction projects in “the developing world, particularly in China” create demand for recycled materials; therefore, (B) is the correct answer. Innovation and obsolescence are mentioned as sources of waste and potential recyclables, but not as causes of an expanded recycling trade, so (C) is incorrect. (D) is incorrect because population increase is never mentioned.

7.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Look for evidence in the text. According to the passage, the price of a pound of copper has increased, but scrap metal prices are not mentioned, so (A) is incorrect. The passage describes subway expansion in Shanghai, but not in the US, nor whether scrap metal was used, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is the only choice supported by the text, which explains that it is not cost-effective to salvage scrap in the US (lines 31-36). (D) is similar to (C), but the passage only describes strict “environmental regulations,” not safety regulations, so (D) is wrong.

8.

The Correct Answer is (C) — If you looked for evidence in the text for the previous answer, you would find that (C) is correct, because it explains the cost and regulatory reasons against recycling scrap in the US.

9.

The Correct Answer is (A) — The first words of paragraph 4 ("For example…") indicate that the paragraph will use evidence to support a previous statement. The last sentence of the previous paragraph explains that the American scrap surplus has driven innovation that diverts waste from landfills, and paragraph 4 goes on to give an example of such innovation (the motor shredder); thus, the paragraph uses evidence to support a previous claim, so (A) is correct. Rule out (B), because there are no terms explicitly introduced in the previous paragraph. (C) is similar to (A), but there is no general rule supported. (D) is incorrect The first words of paragraph 4 ("For example…") indicate that the paragraph will use evidence to support a previous statement. The last sentence of the previous paragraph explains that the American scrap surplus has driven innovation that diverts waste from landfills, and paragraph 4 goes on to give an example of such innovation (the motor shredder); thus, the paragraph uses evidence to support a previous claim, so (A) is correct. Rule out (B), because there are no terms explicitly introduced in the previous paragraph. (C) is similar to (A), but there is no general rule supported. (D) is incorrect The first words of paragraph 4 ("For example…") indicate that the paragraph will use evidence to support a previous statement. The last sentence of the previous paragraph explains that the American scrap surplus has driven innovation that diverts waste from landfills, and paragraph 4 goes on to give an example of such innovation (the motor shredder); thus, the paragraph uses evidence to support a previous claim, so (A) is correct. Rule out (B), because there are no terms explicitly introduced in the previous paragraph. (C) is similar to (A), but there is no general rule supported. (D) is incorrect because there are no positions argued for or against in these two paragraphs.

10.

The Correct Answer is (B) — The passage talks about extracting or obtaining value from waste. “Removes” (A) is incorrect because its meaning is closer to eliminating value. “Derives” (B) is closest in meaning to the process of getting value from waste. “Selects” (C) is incorrect because the value is already present, not selected or chosen. "Exacts" (D) has a similar sense of obtaining wealth or results, but means demanding it from someone.

11.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (A) is incorrect because it uses tons, while the chart shows value in millions of dollars. Although the chart doesn’t give exact numbers, (B) is correct because we can see that the value of scrap metal exports outweighs paper and plastics combined each year. The chart only shows US scrap exports to China, rather than China’s imports from all countries, so (C) is incorrect. (D) is incorrect because it references all US scrap metal exports, while the chart only shows US scrap metal exports to China.

12.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Both passages have to support this answer. (A) is not supported by the first sentence of Passage 2. Flawed studies are only directly mentioned in Passage 1, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is correct. (D) is not supported by Passage 2.

13.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Cholesterol levels are only mentioned in Passage 1, so (A) is incorrect. (B) is correct because only Passage 2 references specific studies. Neither passage provides direct evidence about the prevalence or financial cost of statin use, so (C) and (D) cannot be correct.

14.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In context, the passage explains that “each individual trial only follows patients for a few years,” although patients may participate in various trials that together span many years. Look for the answer that describes a single instance of a clinical trial. (A) means unique, (B) relates to a single patient, and (C) means hidden. (D) is the most applicable meaning for the individual clinical trials.

15.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The author of passage one advocates against “giving statins to healthy people, even those with higher cholesterol” and advocates for prescribing statins for patients “who already have heart disease.” Thus, eliminate (A), (B), and (C), as these patients do not have heart disease, leaving (D) as the correct answer.

16.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look for the passage that supports the previous answer. Lines 3-5 explain that patients with heart disease benefit from taking statins; so (A) is correct.

17.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Go back to the passage to find information about statins and diabetes. The only mention of diabetes is in lines 20-23, which say that 1 in 100 healthy patients who take statins will develop diabetes; therefore, (B) is correct.

18.

The Correct Answer is (B) — A good place to look for the author’s position is in the introduction. Passage 2’s introduction indicates that there is enough evidence to prescribe statins to apparently healthy patients who may be at risk for heart disease. Thus, (B) is correct.

19.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Lines 53-54 stress that waiting to prescribe statins after disability or death would be foolish. (A) and (B) are more about when to prescribe statins, which is not mentioned in the lines. (C) is correct. (D) is close, but excludes the lines’ mention of disability.

20.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In context, selective refers to the use of statins in certain high-risk cases, based on evidence. Look for the answer that relates to this careful, evidence-based decision. (A) means demanding, which is incorrect. A “choosy” or picky decision may not be based on evidence, so (B) is wrong. (C), meaning careful or done with good judgment, is correct. (D), meaning restricted to these cases only – is too extreme.

21.

The Correct Answer is (A) — First, find the claim from the directed lines: Passage 1 claims that clinical trials don’t show reduced mortality with statin use. Next, see if Passage 2 mentions clinical trials and mortality rates. Line 70 mentions “a decrease in mortality rates…with statin therapy” in healthy men. Thus, (A) is correct.

22.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Be careful to test each option, even if you found evidence for the previous answer. (A) and (B) are incorrect, because they don’t mention mortality rates. (C) and (D) are similar, so look for the best, more general answer. (D) is more specific, so (C) is the correct answer.

23.

The Correct Answer is (C) — Look at the italicized summary at the top of the passage and at the introductory sentence to find the main purpose. The summary indicates that the passage seeks to build support for the creation of a unified government. Thus, (C) is the correct answer.

24.

The Correct Answer is (C) — (C) is correct. Since the passage begins with an argument in support of a particular system (B) cannot be correct. (A) is not correct as there are clear arguments in this excerpt that support a specific position. (D) is not correct, as there is no list of problems or step-by-step solutions.

25.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Since the question puts “just cause” in quotes, look for those actual words. Conveniently, they are in lines 1-2, where the author states that “the just causes of war, for the most part, arise either from violation of treaties or from direct violence.” (A), (B), and (C) are not necessarily violations of treaties nor violent, so they are incorrect. (D) is correct.

26.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In context, the passage contrasts a united government with both “separate states” and “distinct confederacies.” Even without knowing the meaning of distinct, sentence structure shows it is the opposite of united. (A) is correct. (B), (C), and (D) have nothing to do with unity or separateness, so they are incorrect.

27.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In context, the author says that “Prospect” of loss or advantage can be tempting. (A) is incorrect because hope of loss doesn’t make sense. (B) doesn’t make sense. (C) doesn’t explain why simply seeing loss or advantage can influence behavior. (D) is correct.

28.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look at the passage. Lines 11-13 suggest that states might be tempted to behave improperly on their own. Thus, (A) is correct. Note also that (B), (C), and (D) are too specific to be correct.

29.

The Correct Answer is (B) — In context, “accidental” is contrasted with “designed,” or intentional, violations of treaties, both of which the author says are harder to punish when committed by a unified government. (B) is correct because restates Jay's argument. (A) is a trick answer playing on the dual meaning of "apprehended." (C) and (D) are too extreme.

30.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Look at the directed lines. The sentence references previous arguments, so look back at those. Lines 13-15 describe how small temptations to behave improperly have less influence on a large unified nation; thus, (B) is correct. International criminals are never mentioned, so (A) is incorrect. Keeping people “safe, happy, and obedient” is never mentioned, so (C) is incorrect. Wartime funding is never mentioned, so (D) is incorrect.

31.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In the directed lines, Jay explains that violent conflicts are more often caused by the interests of a small group than by those of a whole society. (A) is too specific. (B) doesn’t make sense. (C) is correct. (D) is incorrect because it goes against Jay’s argument for a united government.

32.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Read the previous few lines for context. Jay makes a claim, which the final paragraph supports; thus, (A) is correct. (Note also that it is the most general option.) (B) is incorrect because the passage does not reference U.S.-France relations. Although this could happen, there is no actual prediction mentioned, so (C) is incorrect. Superiority and inferiority are mentioned, but do not include the US, so (D) is incorrect.

33.

The Correct Answer is (C) — To find overall structure, look at the topic and concluding sentences of each paragraph. The passage explores current and future uses of brain implants, providing various examples. (A) is incorrect because there is no cohesive narrative. There is no misconception mentioned in the passage, so rule out (B). (C) is correct. While (D) is tempting, since the passage speculates about the future and mentions experiments, the experiments are not the main focus of the passage, so (D) is incorrect.

34.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Lines 1-10 do not demonstrate specific technological advances or suggest imminent availability, so (A) and (C) are incorrect. (B) is correct. Costs are not discussed, so (D) is incorrect.

35.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In context, a “narrowly defined set of patients” describes how the set of patients is selected based on interpretation of certain criteria; thus, (D) is correct. (A), (C), and (B) all roughly mean explained or described, which doesn’t take into account the act of selecting and defining the patient population.

36.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Neuroprosthetics treat various disorders and disabilities, so (A) is incorrect. The passage states that cochlear—not retinal—implants are used by nearly 300,000 people, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is incorrect, because the passage only states that neuroprosthetics, such as cochlear implants, are different from pacemakers. (D) is correct, because lines 16-19 explain that neuroprosthetics “change how we perceive the world.”

37.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Look for a section that mentions cochlear and retinal implants (lines 21-33). While FDA approval is mentioned, the length of time to approval is not, so (A) is wrong. (B) is correct, because the end of the paragraph explains that cochlear and retinal implants are “approximating the naturally occurring output from the ear or the eye.” Since the passage says that implants approximate real senses, it is reasonable to assume that they are not yet as good as natural senses, so (C) is incorrect. (D) is not mentioned in the passage.

38.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) is correct, since it explains how the implants attempt to recreate normal ear and eye function.

39.

The Correct Answer is (A) — In context, to exploit a principle means to make use of a principle. (A) is correct. (B) means the opposite: to mis-use a principle. (C) means to trick. (D) means to make something up.

40.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The passage explains (lines 15-20) that neuroprosthetics help patients by electrical stimulation of parts of the nervous system. (A) is incorrect because neuroprosthetics treat but do not cure patients with Parkinson’s disease. Commercialization with videogames is not mentioned, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is correct. Note also that it is the most general. (D) is not mentioned.

41.

The Correct Answer is (B) — (B) is correct, because it describes how deep brain stimulation might treat conditions beyond Parkinson’s.

42.

The Correct Answer is (D) — The graphic shows an external microphone that transmits signals to a receiver, which stimulates the nerve with an electrode array, sending a signal to the brain for interpretation. Only (D) correctly describes this multi-step process.

43.

The Correct Answer is (D) — Look at the paragraphs at the beginning and the end of the passage. In the beginning, there is an invitation, and the end reveals Spear’s lie. Thus, (D) is the correct answer.

44.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look at Spear’s dialogue. (A) is correct. Spear is trying to convince the narrator, so (B) doesn’t make sense. (C) is extreme. Spear seems fairly enthusiastic, so (D) is wrong.

45.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Look at the directed lines for context; the sentence involves vision, scrutiny, and reading. Eliminate (A) because the sentence does not involve mysticism. (B) is the correct answer. Rule out (C), because the narrator hasn’t said anything about secrets. Spear may be judging character, but the text doesn’t specifically say that, so (D) is incorrect.

46.

The Correct Answer is (D) — In context, richest describes “veins of mineral” in a vault. The preceding sentences describe a booming trade in raw materials like fur and timber. Mineral can’t be wealthy, so (A) is incorrect. The paragraph describes raw wealth, not luxury, so (B) is incorrect. (C) is tempting, but nowhere does Spear mention cost. (D) is correct. Note also that (D) is the least specific – it describes only amount, not cost or quality.

47.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look for an assurance in the passage. In lines 39-41, Spear guarantees “no end of wealth” for the narrator at Spearhead. (A) is correct. (B), (C), and (D) are all incorrect, and there is no evidence to support them in the text.

48.

The Correct Answer is (B) — Look for a section that contains an assurance about money. (B) is correct.

49.

The Correct Answer is (C) — In context, “extend” refers to an offer of freedom. (A) and (B) roughly mean to grow, which doesn’t make sense. (C) is correct. (D) means to apply force.

50.

The Correct Answer is (A) — Look for a reference to the Hudson’s Bay Company. Lines 59-63 explain that a free trader conducts business “in opposition to” the Hudson’s Bay Company. (A) is correct. (B) is the opposite of what the passage indicates. (C) and (D) are not supported by the text.

51.

The Correct Answer is (D) — (D) is correct, and it is the only option that references the Hudson’s Bay Company.

52.

The Correct Answer is (C) — The final paragraph is entirely dialogue from Spear. He describes Spearhead, but not in detail, so (A) is incorrect. (B) is tempting because it talks about exposing, but Spear’s intentions are not new; the invitation has been made before. (C) is correct. (D) is tempting as well; however, the location is not crucial to the story or the paragraph.